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SCUBA Diving Gas Laws

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Shelby Nordstedt

on 3 March 2013

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Transcript of SCUBA Diving Gas Laws

Under
The Sea
SCUBA Background of Scuba Diving SCUBA stands for "Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus" SCUBA diving means going underwater and using pressurized air in order to breathe for a long time This means also that the deeper you go, the more water pressure is exerted on your body Water exerts about 1 bar for every thirty feet deep you go (approximately 100 KPa) What you need to know: Equipment: What you will be using is called a single hose: It is the most common SCUBA diving regulator, and is used by many. It will allow you to breathe underwater. It reduces pressurized gas to ambient pressure (Which is the pressure of the surrounding medium, i.e. the water, which comes into contact with the object) and then delivers the air to you, allowing you the breathe. Also, in order to be able to breath underwater, the pressure on the inhaled breath must counter the surrounding pressure to inflate the surrounding lungs Another factor that needs to be considered is
factor of buoyancy. Many SCUBA divers often use these things called diving weights in order to counteract their buoyancy and go deeper underwater Divers also use diving fins in order to
propel themselves forward and swim faster What you will be doing You will be swimming underwater and breathing using pressurized air. However it is very important to remember that you are not immune to the pressure of the water, so don't go too deep Another important note: The pressurized
gas you will be breathing in will be 21% oxygen,
78% Nitrogen, and 1% trace gasses Gas Laws: Boyle's Law Boyle's Law states that the pressure and the volume of a given gas are inversely related if the temperature is constant; this means that as the volume decreases, the pressure increases due to the increase in frequency of the molecules hitting the walls of the container ***** and vice versa Charles' Law Charles' Law states states that as the temperature of a gas increases, the volume increases as well. Henry's Law Henry's Law states that the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of that gas Dalton's Law The law states that the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures which would be exerted by the gases individually. Risks Barotrauma Because of Boyle's Law, as the diver descends, the air in the divers cavities decreases as the pressure increases. Therefore, due to the increased pressure, it can lead to things like a ruptured lung or ear drum To avoid this, be sure to equalize the pressure in all airspaces and To avoid this, be sure to equalize the pressure in all air spaces with the surrounding water and be sure to not go too deep. Barotrauma can occur when a diver moves to or from high pressure areas Decompression Sickness,
aka. "The Bends" Nitrogen Narcosis This occurs to divers who breathe high pressure gas while they are deep underwater. It alters their consciousness. As Henry's Law goes, our bodies take in more gasses as the pressure increases. Therefore, as we go deeper underwater, our bodies take in more gasses. Symptoms include: impaired judgement, euphoria, anxiety, loss of coordination, lack of concentration, hallucinogenic reaction, and tunnel vision. To prevent Nitrogen Narcosis you should avoid diving deeper than 66 ft underwater. Because of this, this leads to a risk of developing "the Bends". The Bends happens when our bodies take in a lot of Nitrogen due to increase pressure. The problem arises when the pressure suddenly reduces as the diver ascends. Oxygen Toxicity "The Bends" leads to harmful bubbling. The symptoms can vary from aching joints and a skin rash to paralysis and death. In order to avoid it,
ascend in stages and
too fast. Oxygen toxicity is a condition that results from breathing oxygen at high partial pressures. It occurs when the oxygen in your body exceeds a safe partial pressure. Syptoms of Oxygen Toxicity include: disorientation, breathing problems, vision changes, cell membranes damage, the collapse of the alveoli, retinal detachment, and seizures. When a diver does contract this the best way to treat it is through recompression in a recompression
chamber This can be treated by reducing exposure to high levels of oxygen. Gas Embolisms Gas Embolisms is a condition caused by gas bubbles in your veins or arteries. It occurs when underwater pressure increases making the gas that the diver breathes more dense. Symptoms include: disorientation, breathing problems, and vision changes. The treatment for Gas Embolisms is by breathing 100% oxygn, also known as recompresion. Formula: temperature/volume=k
K is constant Formula: P=KC
Where P = the partial pressure of the gas solute, C is the concentration of the gas and K = the Henry's Law constant. formula:
PV=k
(pressure)(volume)=k Formula:
P = p(1) + p(2) + p(3) ... + p(n)
total pressure=sum of pressures
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