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Biological View of AIDS

How AIDS works
by

anna payson

on 2 June 2011

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Transcript of Biological View of AIDS

AIDS How is it passed on? Through sexual intercourse between a man and a woman, or between two men. Through infected blood: contaminated blood transfusions or unsteralized needles or utensils From an infected mother to her baby, while it is still in the womb, during childbirth, or during breast feeding. Life Cycle Infects Replicates Leaves CD4 on T cell binds to the protein on the retrovirus
2 membranes fused and viral contents are injected into the host cell The viral RNA is converted to single stranded DNA by reverse transcroptase, making random errors along the path
Single stranded DNA is reverse transcribed again in order to be turned into a double strand of DNA
New DNA is carried into host cells nucleus and inserted into its DNA, establishing a life-long connection DNA of the host cell is transcribed into RNA, which then codes for new viral proteins
New viral proteins are made and assemble into a new virus
After leaves mature cells into a virion and can infect more cells CD4 T-Cells: Helper T cells express CD4 protein on their surface
They then bind to dendritic cells showing MHC ( Major Histocompatible Complex ) Class II molecules
Finally, they assist other leukocytes, such as activating B cells Symptoms Within the first few weeks:
Fever
Headaches
Sore Throat
Swollen Lymph Glands
Rash Years Later:
Swollen Lyphnodes
Diarrhea
Weight loss
Fever
Cough/Shortness of Breath Swollen lymph nodes are the most
common indicator of an HIV and AIDS Progression into AIDS
* Soaking night sweats
* Shaking chills or fever higher than 100 F (38 C) for several weeks
* Cough and shortness of breath
* Chronic diarrhea
* Persistent white spots or unusual lesions on your tongue or in your mouth
* Headaches
* Persistent, unexplained fatigue
* Blurred and distorted vision
* Weight loss
* Skin rashes or bumps Treatments * Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): NNRTIs disable a protein needed by HIV to make copies of itself. Examples include efavirenz (Sustiva), etravirine (Intelence) and nevirapine (Viramune).
* Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): NRTIs are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make copies of itself. Examples include Abacavir (Ziagen), and the combination drugs emtricitabine and tenofovir (Truvada), and lamivudine and zidovudine (Combivir).
* Protease inhibitors (PIs): PIs disable protease, another protein that HIV needs to make copies of itself. Examples include atazanavir (Reyataz), darunavir (Prezista), fosamprenavir (Lexiva) and ritonavir (Norvir).
* Entry or fusion inhibitor: These drugs block HIV's entry into CD4 cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (Fuzeon) and maraviroc (Selzentry).
* Integrase inhibitors: Raltegravir (Isentress) works by disabling integrase, a protein that HIV uses to insert its genetic material into CD4 cells. *AZT: Molecular structure is very similar to thymine, so the reverse transcriptase will accept AXT instead of thymine when making single stranded DNA. Once AZT is incorporated into the DNA, it will stop the transcriptase from working. Resistant viruses do not accept AZT. When to start treatment
Current guidelines indicate that treatment should begin if:

* You have severe symptoms
* Your CD4 count is under 500
* You're pregnant
* You have HIV-related kidney disease
* You're being treated for hepatitis B Why Is AIDS so Dangerous? If the body's immune system attacks and kills viruses, what's the problem?

Different viruses attack different parts of the body - some may attack the skin, others the lungs, and so on. The common cold is also caused by a virus. HIV is not just harmful, it is deadly & dangerous because it attacks the immune system itself, the whole lot that normally gets rid of a virus. It particularly attacks a special type of immune-system cell - without which, the immune system's ability to fight off the virus gets weakened, thus, spreading HIV throughout the body.

This entire process is invisible, and there is not other way to let know, just by looking at someone, whether that person is infected by HIV or not, but for a blood test that can detect the presence of this virus in the blood, from about three months after the occurrence of this infection for the very first time. People infected with HIV may look & feel perfectly healthy and it is likely that they may not even know that they are infected. Gradually, the person's immune system weakens with the passage of time and they become increasingly vulnerable to diseases & illnesses, many of which could normally fight off easily otherwise.
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