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The structure of matter
Transcript of The structure of matter
(-) A Helium Atom A Neutron n/n0 Another neutron A Proton A proton is a particle in an atom that has a positive charge. It is combined with the neutron of an atom.Together the proton and neutrons are called the nucleus or the nuclei. The atomic number of an atom is determined by counting the number of protons in an atom. MATTER Atoms are the building blocks of matter. They were discovered by John Dalton.The gold atom was the first to be discovered. An Electron An electron is the part of an atom that has the negative charge. Its number is equal to the number of protons in an atom. The Periodic Table The periodic table is a table that lists the elements known to human beings. Till date, there are 119 elements known to us. Out of which 92 are natural and the rest i.e.-27 elements are man made. The parallel rows are called periods. And the vertical rows are called columns. In the first two columns there are metals. Hydrogen is an exception. The 13, 14, 15 & 16 column belong to basic metals, semi-metals and non-metals respectively. The 17 column belongs to halogens. The 18 and the last column belongs to inert elements. The do not react with any other element. Compounds Compound are made when two or more elements chemically combine together (H20, H2SO4 etc.). The properties of the compound will be different from it constituents. For example; H2O (water) is a compound made up of two gases - hydrogen and oxygen- which make up water, a liquid. John Dalton Atomicity The atoms of some elements can exist independently. For example- inert elements (Helium- He; Neon- Ne). They are known as mono atomic elements. Their formula is therefore the same as their chemical symbol. They are called mono atomic elements. Molecules Molecule is the smallest particle of a compound. It is written as a formula, for example- H2O- the water molecule has two different atoms (hydrogen and oxygen) in a ratio of 2:1. The ratio of hydrogen and oxygen in H2O will never change. Mixtures A mixture is formed when two elements that cannot be chemically combined are brought together. Mixtures can be easily separated by physical mean. For example- the mixture of iron and sulphur. It can be separated with the help of a magnet. Radicals Some atoms that have formulas like SO and NH are called radicals, Thus, SO becomes sulphate and NH becomes ammonium. -2 4 + 4 -2 4 + 4 Valency You must have noticed that one atom of a different element combines with another atom of different a element to make a compound. The valency of an element denotes its combinig capacity. Valency for metals The valency of metals depend on the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell. For example the valency of hydrogen is 1, the valency for berylium is 2. Valency for non-metals The valency fo metal depend on the number of electrons needed to fill up the outermost electron shell. So, if oxygen needs 2 electrons to fill up its outermost electron shell, its valency is 2. Valency for compounds The valency for compounds depends on the number of atoms inside it for example the valency for chlorine in HCl i.e. hydrochloric acid is 1. But for hydrogen in H SO is -1 2 4 CAN YOU NOW UNDERSTAND THE TOPIC
STRUCTURE OF MATTER? THANK YOU :-) (
( By Palash Tyagi,
Magnus Homogenous mixtures Homogenous mixtures are the mixture that have the same properties and same amount of a mineral or substance. E.G.- Distilled water. Heterogeneous mixtures Heterogeneous mixtures are the opposites of homogeneous mixtures. E.G.-Wood, mineral water