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Recombinant Urbanism-2

三種都市元素 enclave, armature, heterotopia
by

Cheng-Luen Hsueh

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Recombinant Urbanism-2

memorable streets
stabilizer
Potentially indeterminable set piece
splendid public terrace
5 basic elements of city collage
ambiguous and composite buildings
armature
single-centered enclave
重複的元素> field
不同尺度: 建築類型、連續的立面、裝飾細部....
制高點

整個城市組織的感應
heterotopia
多重尺度、field的交界
同時存在兩種重疊、交替的閲讀
關係網絡中的 in-between
nostalgia-producing instruments
displace of space/time
Italian formal garden
懷舊的生産工具:『科學』的未來感受,
或是『浪漫』的過去
太空中心 Cape Canaveral, Florida
Galveston, Texas
油井
Caius Cestius 金字塔
Taranto 港
Alamo 城堡, San Antonio
Thornton 購物街 arcade, 里茲Leeds, 英國
畫家想像的
都市元素的組合
7 "Ages" of Postmodern Design
"IN ANY MAJOR MOVEMENT THERE ARE VARIOUS STRANDS RUNNING CONCURRENTLY WHICH HAVE TO BE DISTINGUISHED BECAUSE OF DIFFERING VALUES. HERE THE SIX MAIN TRADITIONS OF POST-MODERNISM SHOW THEIR COMMON GROUND AND DIFFERENCES AND ILLUSTRATE THE FACT THAT SINCE THE LATS 1970S POST-MODERN CLASSICISM AND URBANISM HAVE BEEN UNIFYING FORCES."
1978 Collage City
脱離 modernism
沒有單一參與者/設計師 可以單獨主導一切
在地參與者 具 全球性的關聯
以碎片拼湊連結 在地/全球 的流變
Modern Movement in Architecture,
Charles Jencks 1973
6. Assemblage
1. Decoupage
5. Montage
4. Photomontage
3. Bricolage
7. Rhizomic assemblage
2. Collage City
(plus Contextualism and Rationalism

Structuralist Levi-Strauss's
still image
Aldo Rossi "Analogical City" 1976
Generic Urbanism and Deconstructivism
Deleuze & Guattari > 21世紀 network city
蝶古巴特 /剪黏
具有 memory 的 assemblage
非Gestalt完形的整體
記憶保持在碎片内 /中性/既成
如同Marcel Duchamp
從碎片中構成敘事性 narrative
非古典/現代主義的邏輯
多中心都市的 jump-cut 的邏輯
analogy 類比
從類似中心性烏托邦的廢墟中 拼貼既成的形式
類比於 Bentham's Panopticon/ 羅馬的萬神殿...
類比的 類型/紋理 的識別過程
>> 參與者-設計師 建立正式的連結, 宣告自己的邏輯
不遵照現代主義的邏輯,結合相似的元素,激發都市複雜性
以既有紋理保留街道、包覆.... 隨意混合、配對
都市作為市民隨時間創造而成的物件
collective effort
參與者-設計師 之間的 poetic & symbolic 關係
廢墟 ruins、災難疊加的都市 (非中産階級科學的進歩觀)

衰敗中的、將被拆除的....

>>現代都市中短暫無常的本質
Cinema
Urban Design as
a re-combinatory practice

3 Re-combinatory Urban Elements
enclave
armature
heterotopia
聚落/飛地 enclave: to cut/cleave
land subdivision,
創造/紀録 agricultural fields/culture


Lynch’s: 靜止/停滯區域 “stasis” and rest,

Rowe’s: 穩定區域 stablizer, a place where a particular actor can flourish, creating their own fragment and culture.

組成都市系統的根本 Safe enclaves form the basis of all urban systems

主導農業文化 dominated the culture of the agricultural world,

流動系統中停留的場所 stopping places in systems of flow:
department stores/ malls/ factories/ warehouses
骨架Armatures: 線性排序裝置linear sorting devices
處理流動handle flow,
沿邊縁有停留場所resting places along edges



Rowe: 紀念性的大街“Great Streets” like Fifth Avenue, New York, beside Central Park

Lynch: 路徑 “Paths” 延伸/壓縮
stretched Paths in space and time>> highway

Robert Venturi: Learning From Las Vegas (1972)

Barry Maitland: 600ft inside multi-level malls (1986).
異質空間 作為改變與重組的空間Heterotopias as places of change and recombination
Lynch and Rowe: how cities accommodate change??

“heterotopias”: 異質場所 “place of the other”
Michel Foucault's “Of Other Spaces” (1964)
都市作用者如何改變城市 透過對特定場所活動的控制 具基因重組特性 model of how urban actors changed cities through their control of activities in specific places with re-combinant codes.



明確 但 滲透的邊界 defined/ but porous boundaries

控制的入口 controlled entrances.

多細胞的 允許不同空間、時間、活動、人、共存於更大的都市系統下 multi-cellular, allowing disparate spaces, places, times, activities and people to co-exist within the larger urban system.

不尋常/複雜的 機制/回饋迴圈 允許都市作用者的共存
Heterotopias were unusual in the complexity of their structure
and feed-back mechanisms that enabled urban actors to co-exist
There was the “System of Emplacement”, the equivalent of Lynch’s City of faith, based on fixed centers. The second system of
“Extension”, based on Galileo’s geometry, where there was a continuous space of extension through which the celestial bodies
moved with machine like precision that could be calculated by man, revealing that old centers were merely resting points in a line of
movement, the equivalent of Lynch’s “city as a machine”. Finally there was the system of “Relations” that created fixed or mobile,
flexible “Sites”. Foucault gave as examples of such “Sites” in 1964 information moving with a set pattern thorough a communication
system, or cars that move in relationship to each other through a traffic jam.
In the system of “Emplacement” there were “heterotopias of crisis”, where individuals went and were
hidden in the fabric of the city without disturbing the dominant order of society (my h1 category). In the system of “Extension”
there were “heterotopias of deviance”, prisons, hospitals, asylums, cemeteries etc that removed those who could
not conform to the dominant work ethic to specialized institutions outside the city, where they could be reformed and helped by
specialists in a rigid discipline (my h2 category). In the system of “Relationships” there could be “heterotopias
of illusion” where codes were very flexible and fast changing, the opposite of the prisons. Foucault gave as examples theaters,
cinemas, museums, art galleries, the stock exchange, bordellos and bath houses, all places that could contain multiple actors, values
and time systems at once and could switch image systems and value systems very quickly (my h3 category).
Conclusion:
Heterotopias in Network Cities

The initial opposition of city and countryside was
dissolved in the city-as-a-machine model, where
movement and stasis became the binary poles
Now we appear to operate in world of virtual or
conceptual mapping versus the physical world,
where advertising and media communications can
rapidly alter our perception of the network city.
Where heterotopias as places of change were once
hidden and then moved out of town, now
“heterotopias of illusion” and pleasure have
proliferated everywhere. They are in the old center
as tourist attractions, in the inner city as gardensuburbs
and middle class utopias, in the Edge City
as theme parks and malls.
poetic narrative:
意外事件、個人特質、文化傳統、技術發明....accidents, personalities, cultural, traditions, technical innovations -->
非 功能的網路 finctional networks
The Rossian cemetery has no roof, floors, windows or doors; instead it is only a shell withopenings. Some of the openings are for light, others for views, access, and evencontainment of cremated bodies. Many do not hold this building in high esteem, as theyfind it depressing or ugly. But Rossi has found a way to make architecture metaphysical;the visitor is inevitably confronted with the thought of death, where truths are constant andirrevocable.
San Cataldo Cemetery, Modena
50s-70s
sense of the whole Gestalt in design
Literal and Phenomenal Transparency - Kolin Rowe & Robert Slutsky, 1955
Colin Rowe的文章 "transparency" 所確立的觀點來看,透明性會分成表像性 “Literal” 的透明,也就是物理性質上的透明,而另一種就是現象的 “Phenomenal”透明,意味著作為現象所發生的透明性。因為現象的透明的關係,透明不再是完全明確而轉變為一種不明確的,模擬兩可(ambiguous)的態。因此透明性似乎通過了解構,重組和雙關成為一種語言上的透明,一種寓意開始出現在透明的想法裡。透明性引申為透過看第一層的意義而思考其隱藏與後的幾層含意。

而在Colin Rowe 文章中最主要的比對就在於Walter Gropius - Bauhaus學院與Le Corbusier的 Villa Stein。大約同時間的兩棟建築,在透明的意義上生了兩種不同的詮釋。包浩斯學院的透明無法對現象上的透明提供一種含糊的透明概念(unambiguous) 因為其所使用的是玻璃的透明屬性。包浩斯展現了一系列的空間但是並非 ”空間維度上的矛盾" 因為其拒了其空間組織上任何一方有本質上的不同,因為被稱為阻止了一種潛在的模稜兩可的可能出現。而Villa stein則被認為展現了玻璃的平面特性,透過其立面玻璃與牆面的分格等手法,我們可以從其享受到某種猜測的樂趣。因為這裡的透明性不是由於玻璃窗所帶來的效果,於是就會回到一種基本的概念上,相互滲透卻不破壞對方。也因為這樣,Colin Rowe 敘述:人們可以享受看透一片玻璃幕牆後的樂趣,這樣或許可以同時看見建築的室與室外;但他因此幾乎不能意識到屬於現象的透明性的語義雙關所帶來的激動。
Literal transparency is perceived and definite, while phenomenal transparency is conceived and indefinite
Bauhaus 一二層樓相反的形式/空間上的運動,沒有提供(gestalt)參考 > 著重在對角的view point(大部份出版的照片) 拒絶了曖昧性
Villa Stein 多正向照片
<->
League of Nations, 1927
拼裝(bricolage)此概念最初是由社會人類學家克洛德·列維-史特勞斯(Claude Lévi-Strauss)在1962年所出版的著作《野性的思維》中所提出。他認為修補匠和原始人類解決問題的方法類似:修補匠喜歡凡事自己動手做,並且會運用手邊現有的工具和材料來完成工作;而當原始人類面對未曾遇過的問題時,並不會想出新的概念來解決,而是會重新組合並修改現有的方法,以適應這些新的狀況。研究其他學科的思想家與作家也會借用拼裝的概念,討論創意藝術家、教師以及其他人士是如何修改現存的想法、材料和做法,並再加以運用,以應付新的狀況

「博藝不精者」(Bricoleur)這個字源自於舊有的法文動詞bricoler。
相較於真正的工匠(李維史陀將之等同於工程師),這個人往往採用偏離正軌或「狡詐」的方式。
博藝不精者近似於「原始人的心智」,而工程師接近科學心智。博藝不精者的宇宙是封閉的,而且他往往被迫就手上所擁有的任何工具來從事工作,然而,工程師的宇宙是開放的,在於他能創造新的工具和材料。
然而,這兩者都生活在一個受限制的現實之中,也因此工程師被迫以類似於博藝不精者的方式,考慮這個先前存在的關於技術手段的理論與實踐知識的組合。
拼裝者(原始心智) <> 工程師(真正的工匠):從目標到方法

In his book The Savage Mind (1962, English translation 1966), French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss used "bricolage" to describe the characteristic patterns of mythological thought. In his description it is opposed to the engineers' creative thinking, which proceeds from goals to means. Mythical thought, according to Levi-Strauss, attempts to re-use available materials in order to solve new problems
拼裝
Paul Citroen, Metropolis, 1921
Giovanni Antonio Canal (Canaletto)
Italian Rococo Painter, 1697 - 1768
The Grand Canal, with an Imaginary Rialto Bridge and Other Buildings
as tool for triggering repressed emtions and memories
modern/industrial advertising/marketing
surrealists
Photoshop + internet
MVRDV costa iberica, 1997
剪接重組 序列的影片片段 > 創造運動(虚假的空間/情感空間/新的現實/隱藏在原地點背後)
Battleship Potempkin - Odessa Steps scene (Einsenstein 1925)
controlled movement in English Garden
空間經驗 建構於
運動系統 movement system
都市中敘事性的路徑 narrative path
picturesque 風景式的
The Picturesque: Studies in a Point of View, Christopher Hussey, 1927
The Picturesque Garden, Richard Payne Knight, 1795-1840
promenade architecture
Le Corbusier's Five Points of Architecture
Pilotis 獨立柱, 架高底層,吊脚樓...
The free design of façade 自由立面
The horizontal window 水平帶窗
open floor plan 自由平面
Roof gardens 屋頂花園
carpenter center
The Museumpark, measuring 440 by 130 meters, is bordered by the Kunsthal, the rose garden of Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen and a canal. The park serves a diverse public: those seeking peace and quite, passers-by, theatre and film audiences, and concertgoers. OMA designed a multifaceted landscape for the park, divided into four zones to accommodate this broad public. A piazza of white stone chips, in which a diagonal pattern of fruit trees with chalk-whitened trunks is planted, forms the junction between the NAI and the park. This area is bordered by a mirrored wall, which reflects the surroundings and forms the gate to the ?theaterplein? (theater plaza). The raised, tarmack zone with electricity delivery points can serve as a podium for open-air film screenings, theater performances and concerts. This ?hard? area contrasts markedly with the adjacent romantic garden for which the existing planting formed the basis. Landscape architect Yves Brunier devised an additional planting scheme to ensure that the garden should remain attractive throughout the year. The garden can be traversed via the 100 meter-long bridge that leads to the forecourt of the Kunsthal. The park?s main axis ends in a ramp that runs through the Kunsthal and emerges on the Westzeedijk dike.
Kunsthal Museum, Rem Koolhaas
seattle library, rem koolhaas
Townscape storyboard,Gordon Cullen, 1960
nomadic artist's project
Homeless Vehicle Cart, krzysztof Wodiczko, 1988
The Millowners Association Building
Villa La Roche
high court, chandigarh
guggenheim
High Museum of Art, Richard Meier
沒有記憶/完形的回饋 no redemptive memory/ overall Gestalt (collage and bricolage)
沒有中心控制 no central/ overall system of command or feedback
無法預測、自主系統 >> 無法從在地尺度 得到 大尺度模式
齊夫定律(Zipf's law)可以表述為:在自然語言的語料庫裡,一個單詞出現的頻率與它在頻率表裡的排名成反比。所以,頻率最高的單詞出現的頻率大約是出現頻率第二位的單詞的2倍,而出現頻率第二位的單詞則是出現頻率第四位的單詞的2倍
"the" 是 "of" 的兩倍
自主經濟地理學
既成物件 隨機選取與組合,著重在組合過程,無關美學
Duchamp, 普普,Andy Warhol
Venturi and Scott Brown
藝術 art | 媚俗 kitsch
模糊
National Football Hall of Fame
James Stirling
Leicester Engineering Laboratory, 1959-63
re-introduce 敘事的路徑 narrative path
同樣沒有中心、控制點, 多重敘事交踏
John Hedjuk
Berlin Mask Project
Berlin Masques (1981) -
面具:再現 内/外 私密/公共 和善/邪惡.... 的調解
The masquse represent the mediation between inside , the private, the perverse and outside, the public and polite
These aspects stretch from a stylistic preference for basic, geometrically and tectonically controlled forms and elemental biomorphism (hair, beaks, eyes, legs) to typological variations on theaters, periscopes, caissons, funnels, traps, and labyrinths ; allegorically they include angels, animals, and machines as well as a set of reduced human characters (The Identity Card Man, The Mask Taker, The Lottery Woman, et al.) ; narratively, they employ traditions of folklore, carnivals, and masquerades in alternately melancholic and ecstatic moods; thematically they conjoin routinized craft and trade, falls from grace, and struggles of life and death.
毎個參與者actor 建構各自的面具/建築
在都市移動、互相互動、結合、再結合
Buenos Aires project.
Theatre Mask + Geometric Mask
Form of (extended, hidden) network / energy field
A Thousand Plateaus,
Gilles Deleuze & Felix Guattari, 1987
background
地下莖 作為隱喩:回應各種刺激而來的 去中心性網絡中的複雜互動系統
rhizome as a metaphor for complex system of interactions in a decentralized network that responds to stimuli
混合 獨立的敘事性路徑、
分享、溝通 集體的資訊、經驗的網絡
> 群體的意識
<
Layer 的概念誤讀
> 質疑 datum of sidewalk as city ground-plane
> 解構主義設計 > 空中、地下的平台
反對全球化下單一的資訊系統,透過在地知識測試各種假設
<> collage city
(風景式/歴史性 scenographic/historic)
rhizomic assembly 保有 gestalt記憶感 的整體 存在於碎塊中,bottom-up, 沒有單一控制中心
collage vity -> 王子
NYC -> 市長&市民代表
sim city -> 市長 檢視都市碎塊之間的關係
Conclusion
urban design 開始於 現代主義master-planning的崩解

設計師藉由在各enclave中 創造封閉的系統 過濾外在混亂的環境

urban design 提供彈性可適應的方法
處理碎化、多中心的都市區域

七種'-ages' 都存在/分享 一組共同的
都市元素:
armature, enclave, heterotopia

Pruitt–Igoe housing project, St. Louis, Missouri. 1954-1972
Hudson's Department Store. 1998.
都市設計: 作為一種基因重組式的實踐
Five Book of Architecture,
Sebastian Serlio, 1537

舞台場景透視圖建構
Noble (Tragic) scene
satyric scene
comic scene
Vitruvius's Roman Theater
The Ten Books on Architecture
映射 文藝復興城市
文藝復興 透視
固定、古典、階級、社會秩序
三種都市系統 各自有參與者、演員、舞台、佈景.....
古羅馬 帝國首都
市場; 混亂秩序

蜿蜒街道、cul-de-sac、

商業城市

各自不同的組織/表現性
Row house 住宅/學徒

角落商店/樓上染坊

旅店/青樓

被忽略的教堂

莎士比亞的都市場景
Romeo & Juliet
沿街古典宮殿

城市門戸

古羅馬喪葬紀念物

街道中間文藝復興式
王子宮殿

古羅馬教堂
tower of wind
colosseum
dome of Pantheon
樹林街道

小尺度/孤立的茅屋

末端旅店為終點

都市層級末端的村莊

與其他都市設定對比

都市參與者必須應付氣候、農耕、
技術、散落的聚落

satyrs: 半人半獸
hybrid, 與自然融合
Serlio 的hybrid特色: city gate...
前兩種都市之間張力/衝突的嘲諷
以線性空間/街道為主 來組織周邊的密度、活動
其他的幾種 都市模型
conceptual city models

A theory of Good City Form, Kevin Lynch, 1981
Three Normative Models
invisible cities, Italo Calvino, 1972
一系列的城市 包含被誇張的
特定/關於人的本質問題 的社會
代表各種特定的都市理論

flows of energy/information/people
能量/資訊/人 流動
消耗能量/製造
的 地區/在地 場所

localized place setting
心理的地圖

心理地理學
mental city-map
節點/具吸引力地點

nodes/ attractors
都市混雜的空間紋理
urban grain
都市中序列/不同強度的補丁

patchworks diagrams
alternating net diagram,
Theory of Good City Form,
Kevin Lynch, 1981
信仰的城市
City of Faith
機器的城市
City as a Machine
生態的城市
Ecological City
Broadacre City, Frank Lloyd Wright, 1935
都市是有機體 organism

自我穩定的動力體 homeostatic dynamism

整體的平衡 balance as whole

達爾文的演化論
回饋 feedback loop
測不準原理
Three eggs diagrams
Cedric Price: 1982
基因重組
Watson & Crick, 1953
(like numbered storefronts along a high street).
3種特質

complex system of feed-back/control :
3 “m”s :

鏡射 mirror
反射周邊的社會 function (derived from Lacan’s theories of delirious self-definition in a mirror), so that heterotopias reflected their surrounding society but reversed the dominant codes, allowing the co-existence of forbidden mixtures.

自反的縮影 reflexive miniatures
周邊城市架構/價値 的微型城市 a city within a city, mirroring in miniature the larger surrounding city’s structure and values.

多重 multiple
多細胞/多層疊來混合不同的人/流動 multiple cells, perhaps in multiple layers, in which to mix different categories of people or flows of energy.
Six Principles

1. 所有文化都産生異質空間 有各種形式... 危機/差異....
All cultures create heterotopias, and they take varied forms… (heterotopias of crisis, heterotopias of deviation)

2. 為某種目的而建造的異質空間 可能以其他非常不同的方式作用
Heterotopias constructed for one purpose can function in a very different fashion… (cemetary)

3. 異質空間可以疊加多種不相容的空間/基地 於單一真實的場所
Heterotopias can juxtapose in a single real place where several spaces, several sites that are in themselves incompatible.

4. 異質空間如何連結時間的某一切片
How heterotopias linked to precise slices in time

5. 門戸與牆 預先假定一種 開/關 的系統
Gates and walls that presuppose a system of opening and closing… (enter->excluded. Guest room of Brazilian farmhouse, motel)

6. 在都市系統内作為 自由/幻想 場所 或是 補償/紀律 場所
Inside urban system as sites of freedom and illusion or as sites of compensation and discipline…
巴黎紅燈區、殖民地、
船:漂浮的空間/無場所的場所/孤獨單一/自我封閉<>無邊際大海
(Parisian brothel, colonies)
Ship, floating piece of space, a place without place, exists by itself,close in on itself and given over the infinity of the sea….
1. 明確内部的空間/社會的秩序

2. 特別的吸引物形成特質/
透過置換 與理想或遙遠社區關聯

3. 邊界限制

4. 門 連結外部交通/通訊

5. 停留場所

6. 可能包含多種形態轉換 但多被單一形式的重複主導

7. 看門者/系統化/内化的規範
1. 明確内部的空間/社會的秩序

2. 特別的吸引物形成特質/
透過置換 與理想或遙遠社區關聯

3. 邊界限制

4. 門 連結外部交通/通訊

5. 停留場所

6. 可能包含多種形態轉換 但多被單一形式的重複主導

7. 看門者/系統化/内化的規範
A1
v
A2
v
A3
紀律的裝置來管理流動秩序
製造production / 消費consumption
創造吸引點的設施
透過系統地 都市意象的錯置 創造場所的幻覺
神聖的通道通往控制者聚落enclave
E1
v
E2
v
E3
中産階級 郊區社區
都市<>郊區 雙中心
多中心、擴散的
單一/神聖中心
羅馬莊園/殖民地/軍營
H1
v
H2
v
H3
偏差性異質空間 heterotopia of deviance
幻覺異質空間 heterotopia of illusion
危機性異質空間 heterotopia of crisis
隱藏在都市紋理内小尺度機構institutions
神聖性/隱藏在立面後/
教堂旁墓園/街屋中的教堂....
現代化過程中 補償性的紀律
醫院診所/都市功能移轉到郊區/
由處理 物質>>處理 資訊、媒體
Palladio: Teatro, Vicenza, 1580
Amsterdam row house w/hidden Catholic chapel
Michel Foucault, Panopticism

Foucault藉由Bentham的「全景敞視建築」(panoption)的構想,提出了對「權力關係」的重新詮釋與批判。在這個精心設計的機制裡,人並不重要,權力乃是整體性的關係。人們同時是作用點也是執行者,而權力並不專屬於任何人所有,他是外在於主體,也是構成主體的力量。

「權力」是一種關係製造出了位置,而在這樣的機制裡,我們個人都被分門別類,並巧妙的編排進了這樣錯綜複雜而又秩序井然的體系之中,造就了現代的社會秩序。按照屬性分類是為了方便管理,而對象包含所有的事物包括人。因而,個人(特質)並不重要,你呈現的是你的分類屬性,按照這樣的分類屬性,大家能很快認識到你是怎樣的人,並且能確認你在社會關係中的座標位置。

「權力關係」是處處皆在的,表現在資本主義的各個社會環節之中,並且是深入在於其中的,而其本身即是構成生模式的要素。包含了在學校中的知識和技能的生,都是被編排在權力體系下運作的。然而,學校同時也藉由教育規訓再生這樣的權力關係,確立了它穩固的長久運作。

得反思之處在於,在資本主義的意識形態之下,學生從家庭體系轉換進入學校體系接受教育,本是為了習得知識與技能,增加自我在就業市場上的競爭力。然而在Foucault的看法中,這不過是從一個規訓權威轉換到另一個規訓權威之中。如同現代社會為了確保似乎立意崇高的「自由」與「秩序」,而必須制定更多的法律規章及無形的道德輿論以進行規範。接受教育就像進入一個監視體系,而為了追求自由使得人更不自由。似乎是我們總為了理想性而陷入了規訓之中,然而矛盾在於,我們的理想性其實也是生於規訓之下,同樣的也是規訓權威間的轉移。再這種意識形態及權力秩序無處不在網絡深遠的監視規範之下,人能真正的知道自己要的是什麼嗎?
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