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Traditional Instructional Materials and 3D Instructional Materials

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Lodel Millo

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of Traditional Instructional Materials and 3D Instructional Materials

Advantages of Objects & Specimen
Notes
Advantages
Disadvantages
Guidelines
Three Dimensional Materials
What is 3D Instructional Media?
3D Instructional Media are objects that have height, width and depth, like any object in the real world
3D materials are very useful in the event that real-life materials are impossible to be brought in the classroom to provide students with certain amount of direct, purposeful, rich, and meaningful learning experience in accordance with Dale’s “Cone of Experience”.

3D Instructional Media
Realia
Objects and Specimen
Models and Mock-Ups
Diorama
Exhibit and Play
Realia
are real things that represent the actual conditions or direct experiences with which the learner will live.
Examples are: insects, coins, rocks, plants, pets and stamps.
Objects and Specimen
Good substitute for realia
Objects are concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools, and artifacts used in providing direct experience.
Specimen is a part or aspect of some item that is typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group. Specimens enable us to learn many things that would otherwise be unobtainable.
Objects and specimens enable us to build generalizations that would otherwise cost prohibitive amounts of time and effort.
Examples of specimens and objects that we usually collect are the different kinds of rocks, shells, fish, butterflies, mineral deposits, etc. We, too, collect objects like furniture, clothes, tools, toys, coins, relics stamps and pieces of literature of all times
Through these objects students will be able to infer, hypothesize, experiment and form conclusions and generalizations on processes and phenomena which maybe impossible if we rely only on direct experiences.
Points to remember
Before using any three-dimensional instructional materials integrate in our lesson, we must first evaluate these materials.
And ask ourselves, as teachers,
if the model is necessary on case you make use of the original?
Could some other device portray the idea more effectively?
Is the idea appropriate for representation in a model?
Is each part of the model made to the same scale proportionate in size?
Are the important details of construction correct?
Could wrong impressions of size, Color and shape result from using this model?
Does the model oversimplify the idea?
If it is workable, will at standup under frequent use?
If it is made locally, is the model likely to be worth the time, effort and money involved?
If it is purchased, will the model be used often enough to justify the cost?
Whatever material that the teacher uses to enhance the learning experiences of the learners they must still consider the their needs and must pedagogically sound.
Traditional Instructional Materials
Chalk Board
Marker Board
Felt Board
Magnetic Board
Hook and Loop Board
Marker Board
are light-colored surfaces on which material can be written, printed or drawn using felt pens, crayons or other markers of some sort.
can be used in the same ways as chalkboards, and have the advantage of being less messy and offering a wider range of colors.
can also double up as a projection screen if necessary.
Advantages
it is easily available
it is inexpensive and easy to install
it can accommodate so much writing space and easy to clean. Topics can be listed, deleted or revised to a final form.
it is convenient to use both for formally prepared lessons or for spontaneous sessions.
user friendly as they do not produce any dust, unlike the chalks
more effective and lasts for a longer duration than the markings made using a chalk on a chalkboard
writing is easier to read
allows you to prepare and reuse the materials over and over again.can also be used as a projecting medium when you use a video projector or overhead projector
Disadvantages
lessons or writings on the board are only for day's use, hence temporary and cannot be saved.
more costly than the chalk
writing makes one turn his back to the audience
the teacher's handwriting and spelling deficiency can cause disruption from the lesson
harder to clean up
Guidelines
make sure that the board and erasers are cleaned and maintained. Marker must be available before the class starts
plan ahead what you are going to write on the board
write legibly and neatly. Start writing from the left to the right
stand in such a way that you don't block the view of the students when writing
avoid talking to the board while writing
never use the hand for erasing
clean the board after using so it will be ready for the next teacher to use
don't draw graphs, diagrams and other figures on the board, if the use of transparency and the OHP will be more efficient and more effective
Felt Board
also known as Visual Board, Frick Board, Slap Board and Flannel Board
These are sheets of felt (or boards covered with felt) on which moveable displays can be produced by sticking shapes cut out of or backed with felt onto them.
They constitute a comparatively cheap, highly portable and extremely useful display technique, especially in situations that require the movement or re-arrangement of pieces (demonstrating table settings, carrying out sports coaching, etc.)
consists of only two Parts - a board covered with flannel and objects having fuzzy and napped backing
Advantages
permits numerous and varied arrangements of visual materials.
is appealing, because the audience is fascinated in watching the steps in the presentation.
permits the use of either chart or small pieces of material.
promotes conscientious planning, which must precede the development of the material in the first place.
challenges one to develop symbols to portray such things as abstractions.
materials can be packed and transported.
permits use of various colors, which may be used for specific purposes.
materials can be left on board after meeting closes for those who wish more complete notes.
is effective because it permits two techniques for delivering a message, word of mouth-sound and symbols or pictures-sight.
easier to construct materials for flannel board than to make slides or movies.
speaker works in front of his audience in well-lighted surroundings.
chronological development of ideas on board promotes ease in note taking.
after symbols are developed they can quite easily be used in constructing attractive designs.
Disadvantages
Transportation and storing of boards and materials is a problem.
Suitable tables to support boards must be available.
Time and cost of making material for presentation present a problem.
Cost of boards themselves can't be overlooked.
Presentation is limited a new idea involves a lapse of time before the new material can be added.
Might tend to deter one from using other more effective methods and techniques when it is evident that other methods might be more appropriate.
To tell a complete story it often takes either too much board space Or smaller designs and materials some of which cannot be seen well.
Requires considerable ingenuity and imagination to construct effective varied materials.
Materials must be attractively prepared..
Magnetic Board
These are ferromagnetic display boards on which moveable displays can be produced using materials that are made of (or backed with) magnetic materials, or are fitted with small magnets.
They can be used in much the same way as feltboards and hook-and-loop boards.
Hook and Loop Board
These are similar to feltboards, except that the backing material on the display items has large numbers of tiny hooks that engage loops on the surface of the display board.
They are suitable for displaying heavier items.
Introduction
"a thousand hearing are not as effective as one seeing"
Real objects are easily available everywhere
Examining real objects create concrete learning experiences for the learner
Real specimens can be handled and observed thoroughly
They are inexpensive
The children are familiar with the real materials and their interest can easily be focused.
Some live animals and plants are potential hazards. Objects like circuit and heat sources could be dangerous
Some are expensive
Problems regarding storage and retrieval may arise
There would be some instances that real things are not always readily available
Storage and retrieval can create problems
A real object may be too large (a submarine) or too small (a single human cell) for classroom study.
Need to maintain original structure, while some realia can be dismantled, many others cannot be, for example, cutting open a person to see how the heart functions
Fit the real objects with the objectives of the lesson
Students can bring their own realia from their home
Students should be encouraged to help in locating and acquiring realia for their classroom use
Discuss with them rules on retrieval and safe storage
Models
Models are modified real things – reproductions of costly or delicate items that can be provided at reasonable cost and are safe to use.
They are replicas of real objects which may be larger or smaller than the real thing.
Models are excellent for teaching concepts about things that are three-dimensional and concrete in nature.
Examples are globes, model cars, airplanes, house and furniture
Models and Mock-ups
Mock-Ups
an unscaled replica designed to simplify and clarify the workings of the object.
The mock- up, which may be larger or smaller than the real thing, is generally constructed to show the "essential" parts and their functional relationship.
it is made to look like the real thing but does not work or it does not offer any of the functionality
These are less abstract and more concrete.

It attracts students’ attention.

Students become more familiar with objects.

Disadvantages of Objects & Specimen
They need bigger storage.

They are prone to possible damage.

Some objects have limitation in availability and may not be easy to find.


Guidelines of Objects & Specimen
Develop a purpose for using them.

Provide opportunities to pupils to work or to manipulate the specimens so that they can consider concepts, process and principles by themselves.

Present just enough specimens or objects at a time so as not to overwhelm the students/pupils.

Present the materials in a dramatic way so as to arouse and sustain the interest of the student/pupils.


also known as "Blackboard"
smooth dark-colored surfaces on which material can be written, printed or drawn using chalk
most widely used of all visual aids
useful for displaying impromptu 'signposts' and 'links', notes and diagrams during a taught lesson and for working through calculations and similar exercises in front of a class.
Chalk Board
Advantages
it is easily available, inexpensive and easy to install
it can accommodate so much writing space and easy to clean. Topics can be listed, deleted or revised to a final form
it is convenient to use both for formally prepared lessons or for spontaneous sessions
By using the chalkboard, the teacher can write the important information about the topic

The teacher can illustrate/ draw figures and highlight these drawings by using colored chalks.
The visual communication of the chalkboard directs attention of the class to the purposes of the lecture or discussion.
A number of learners can do practice or drill work on the board at one time, allowing the instructor to give feedback immediately.
Disadvantages
lessons or writings on the chalkboard are only for day's use, hence temporary and cannot be saved.
chalk dust makes the area messy and is destructive to electronics, computers, and projection equipment
writing makes one turn his back to the audience
It can cause misconception or misunderstanding if it is not used properly. The teacher's handwriting and spelling deficiency can cause disruption from the lesson

Chalkboard is not applicable in dark areas and is not appropriate for students having visual impairments.

Guidelines
make sure that the chalkboard and erasers are cleaned and maintained. Chalk must be available before the class starts
plan ahead what you are going to write on the board
write legibly and neatly. Start writing from the left to the right
Use yellow chalk on a green board, white on a black board, etc.
stand in such a way that you don't block the view of the students when writing. Avoid talking to the board while writing
Use the eraser to remove errors or make changes. Using your hands only smears the chalk and may deposit oil on the board, which can serve as a dust collector
clean the board after using so it will be ready for the next teacher to use
Advantages
Allow learner to examine model or mock-up which may not be easy in the real object.
Functioning model/mock-up allows learner to handle and operate.
Create high interest and permit close up observation of how it works.
Can provide learning experiences that real objects cannot provide.
Working models can illustrate basic operations of a real device and provide important details.
Allow learner to independently study the item at their own convenience.
Make classroom discussion more effective.
Disadvantages
They require tedious work.
They are expensive.
They might distort some real concepts.
Some models which are too heavy or too big may be difficult for actual lecture.
Guidelines
Be sure the mock-up truly illustrates the functional factors of the real thing
Have the students make mock-ups and according to a planned sequence
Be certain to give the students a picture of the scale and location of parts on the real thing
Use mock- ups when it is essential for students to "see" how the real thing works
In using model, emphasize the size of the real object while being used
Use of moving models can catch attention and interest easily
Some models can be kept for display for a long time depending on the materials.
Models
Diorama
The term Diorama is of Greek origin which means “to see through”.

Diorama is a three-dimensional representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background.

It is also known as a meaningful exhibit in boxes or cases, which are portable.

It is a miniature scene in three-dimensional treatment that is meant to replicate reality and cause students to think creatively and aesthetically.



Four principal parts of dioramas
The case or stage.

The printed background.

The three-dimensional middle and foreground.

The figures, constructions, and modeled objects that are placed in the case.




Advantages of Diorama
They have intrinsic value.

They allow us to compare past and present conditions.

They help us make connections to the real world.

It develops students’ creativity.

It can be viewed, handled, and examined by students.

It adds interest and meaning to the lesson



Disadvantages of Diorama
It demands a bigger space in the classroom in terms of use and storage.

It is generally expensive.

It is easily damaged.




Exhibits
an object, work of art, activity, artifact or poster designed to demonstrate a concept or show a example, usually in a public space or a cultural or educational setting such as a museum, archive or library
concerned with preservation, education and demonstration
designed to attract public interest and curiosity
designed to display visual and written information on topics in an attractive and easily understood manner.
exhibit must create an effective balance between visual interest and historical explanation.
The most common form of exhibit entry is a three-panel display.
make sure the title is the main focus of the center panel
use the center panel to present the main ideas, the side panels are best used either to compare issues about the topic or to explain related detail, artifacts or other materials may also be placed on the table between the side panels.
make labels standout for the title and main ideas to direct the viewer's eye around the exhibit.
use a light-colored piece of paper with a darker background behind it such as construction paper, tag board, or mat board.
Dark black lettering makes labels easier to read.
Photographs and written materials also stand out more if they are placed on backgrounds.
A successful exhibit must be able to explain itself.
It is important to design an exhibit so that the photographs, written materials and illustrations are easy to understand.
Guidelines
Aquarium
Herbary
Herbarium
Terrarium
Other 3D Instructional Materials
representation of plant and animal life in water
representation of plant and animal life on land
collection of live birds
collection of dried herbs
collection of live herbs
Vivarium
Aviary
Solarium/Planetarium
representation of plant and animal life putting together those of the same habitat
Planetarium is a representation of planets and their relative sizes and distances from each other. Solarium is a representation of the solar system, the sun, the earth and the moon.
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