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Transcript of Adoption
International Adoption: choosing to adopt a child from another country
Why do people adopt internationally? Often it comes down to time, international adoption is often faster due to an increased number of children available and an increased availability of infants. International adoption takes 6 months to a year to complete. A wait for a newborn in Canada is roughly 8 years.
International Adoption costs upward of $25,000 while domestic adoption through a public agency has very minimal costs. A domestic adoption through a private agency costs $10,000- $20,000. Reasons For Adoption Infertility Development Life Course Theory concept based on stages and transitions
relationship marriage children
for many the birth of a child is when they truly become a family
adoption also allows you to have children without a relationship
when a couple can not conceive they can turn to adoption, allowing them to go through the above stages. Social Exchange Theory 'cost vs. benefit analysis'
Whether your having children or adopting children you must understand both the positive and the negative before deciding it's a journey you want to embark upon.
However, when adopting you must go through a selection process in which you must be chosen as the best match for a child open adoption: when both the birth parents and the adopted parents have direct communication
semi-open: contact between birth parents and adopted parents that is mediated by an attorney or case worker
closed adoption: files of birth parents are sealed In open adoptions there is less of a chance of the mother changing their mind.
Open adoptions allow for the children to understand where they came from, their heritage and ensures the child doesn't feel as if he/she was unwanted.
Open adoption requires a lot of flexibility and communication. Parents often feel threatened by birth parents, especially worrying that the birth parents will up and change their mind.
Closed adoption also has low risk of the mother changing their mind when the children are already wards of the state. Closed adoption is considered the 'norm'. International vs. Domestic domestic adoption allows more information on child's history, especially medically.
less competition internationally
can be easier to adopt internationally for non-traditional couples
less wait time for international adoptions, however it costs more money
For international adoptions there is more of a cultural change
many international adoptions are considered high risk because the kids have been placed in orphanages. Many of the children have experienced forms of abuse. - Infertility is a common problem for many couples. These couples often choose adoption over infertility treatments because they are guaranteed a child and it's may be a cheaper option depending where the child is adopted from. Reasons for Adoption Some families believe that they should provide a home to a child in need instead of welcoming more children into an overpopulated world. Reasons for Adoption Expand Family or Select Gender Reasons for Adoption Family Situation Help a Child in Need Couples may choose to adopt because they want to provide a sibling to their child and expand their family.
Couples who have multiple children of the same gender many not want to take the chance of having another. They choose adoption because it guarantees the sex of their child. Relative adoption occurs when both biological parents are either deceased, incarcerated, suffering from a drug addiction or otherwise not able to parent their child.
Relative adoption can be temporary or permanent, open or closed depending on the family's situation.
Grandparents adopting and raising their grandchildren is a common form of relative adoption. Reasons for Adoption Lack an Appropriate Partner Effects on the Adopted Child Grief Many people who are either single or in a same-sex relationship choose to adopt because they do not have the means to physically have a child.
Adoption is more independent because you do not have to find a third party to be a surrogate mother or donate sperm. - Grief is a common reaction of the loss of the biological parents
- Begins when the child is old enough to understand what being adopted means
- Adopted child might have some problems understanding this sense of grief because it is normally not acknowledged by the norm of society Effects on the Adopted Child - Adopted children may feel empty and loss because they have been separated by their biological parents
- These children may react to this loss through normal feelings of anger, numbness, depression, anxiety or fear
- Some may suffer from secondary loss - the loss of siblings and other extended family members
- Loss of cultural connection or language Effects on Adopted Child Identity Development and Self Esteem - Children who are adopted may question about their identity
- Identity issues includes questions about biological family, why they were for adoption? where are the birth parents now? and adopted child wonders if they resemble their birth parent
- Self esteem issues: how the individual feels about themselves
- Adopted children normally score lower on self-esteem than non adopted children Loss and Emptiness Effects on the Adopted Child Child Development - Child development plays a major role in a child's life
- Biological parents have a huge influence on the child's development
- Adopted child may develop differently than a child who is not adopted because they are not brought up by their biological parents
- Adopted parents are sometimes unaware on how the adopted child is going to develop because they normally do not have any information about the adoptive child gene pool
- Majority have adoptive children are affected by their biological parents because of their impulsive behaviour such as substance abuse and psychiatric disturbance
- Many of these children carry memories of abuse from their biological parents Effects on Parents who Adopt Depression - Parents who adopt might suffer from Post-adoption depression syndrome (PADS), this might occur within a few weeks of the adoption finalization
- Depression can be cause by parents having difficulties attaching to the new child and may also question their parenting capabilities Effects on Parents who Adopt Identity and Attachment - Sometimes adoptive parents are slow to adjust to their new identity
- Adoptive parents may worry that they may not feel like parents, they wonder if they are really entitled to parent their child
- Parents might question themselves right away wondering why they don't immediately love their new adopted child or wonder if they love their child enough Media Article The New York Times - "Challenging the 'Horrors' of Adoption" - Stereotype that older children that are being adopted are somewhat know to be "damaged"
- However, there is a study that proves this statement to be wrong
- Study in 1994 by the Search Institute comparing adopted teens to teens who were not adopted shows:
- Adopted teens scored high on indicators of well-being, such as - school, performance, friendship, volunteerism, self-esteem and optimism
- Scored lower on high-risk behaviours such as depression, alcohol us, vandalism, and police trouble
- Adopted teens show not significant difference in their perception of similarities between themselves and adoptive parents in terms of interest Bibliography Belkin. L. (2002, July 20). Challenging the “Horrors” of Adoption, New York Times. Retrieved from http://parenting.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/20/challenging-the-horrors-of-adoption/ Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2004) Impact of Adoption on Adopted Persons. Factsheets for Families. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/f_adimpact.cfm Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2010). Impact of Adoption on Adopted Parents. Factsheets for Families. Retrieved from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/impact_parent/index.cfm Bibliography Alexander. J.C. (n.d.). The Inner World of the Adopted Child. EMK Press. Retrieved from http://www.emkpress.com/pdffiles/alexanderguide.pdf Effects on the Adopted Child Abandonment - Adopted child may feel that their biological parents abandon them
- Have a feeling that they are being rejected, and wonder if something was 'wrong' with them, causing the birth parents to set them up for adoption International and Domestic Adoption:
Child, Parents, and Family Adjustment Adjustment of school-aged children, parents, and families in international versus domestic adoption was studied in 100 Israeli families.
- No significant differences were found between the two groups of children.
The only difference was in parenting styles, specifically fathers. In the international adoption group, parents used more problem-focused and support-seeking ways of coping, viewed parenting more as a challenge, were more involved with their children. Are Same-Sex and Single Adoptive Parents More Likely to Adopt Transracially?
A National Analysis of Race, Family Structure, and the Adoption Marketplace This study analyzes a variety of family types (married, single, divorced and same-sex couples) to determine whether or not there is a significant variation in choosing transracial adoption.
Results indicate that “nontraditional” same-sex and single adoptive parents are the most likely to adopt non-white children. Children's Understanding of Adoption - Child's understanding of adoption increases with their development.
Preschool- Child is unlikely to understand much about adoption even though they have been informed about their adoptive status by their parents.
Age 6-7 Most children differentiate between birth and adoption as alternative paths to parenthood although show now awareness of the reasons for it.
Age 8-11- Child's conception of adoption broadens, they now begin to appreciate the uniqueness of this family status.
Age 12-13- Child understands the permanence of the adoptive family relationship in a vague way, they will not understand the legal transfer of parental rights until early-middle adolescence. Biblograhy
Levy-Shiff, R.,Naomi, Z,. & Shulman,S (1997). International and Domestic Adoption: Child, Parents and Famliy Adjustment. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 20(1), 109-129.
Raleigh, E. Are Same-Sex and Single Adoptive Parents More Likely to Adopt Transracially? A National Analysis of Race, Family Structure, and the Adoption Marketplace. Sociological Perspectives, 55 (3), 449-471. Canada Adopts. (n.d). Adopting in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.canadaadopts.com/canada/index.shtml Brodzinaky, D. M., Singer, L. M., & Braff, A. M. (1984). Children's Understanding of Adoption. Child Development, 55(3), 869-878. Multiple Choice Questions What theory best describes how adoption can help gay couples go through life stages and transitions?
a)life course theory
b) social exchange theory
c) feminist theory
d) conflict theory What is the the difference between open and semi-open adoption?
a) open allows contact between the two sets of parents while semi-open allows contact but only through a third party
b) open allows contact but only through third parties and semi-open allows moderate contact between the two sets of parents
c) open means the child knows that they are adopted and the full set of details behind it, semi-open means they know some of their background information
d) open means the parent is open about the fact their child is adopted while semi-open means that only select people know about the adoption.