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Comm 100 Report
Transcript of Comm 100 Report
(1565 - 1898) Alternative Press International Media Some Spanish Publications: El Heraldo de la Revolucion Kalayaan La Independencia La Solidaridad Gazeta del Superior Gobierno Mainstream Press Until now, we have spoken of Del Superior Gobierno as the first newspaper in the Philippines.
On 2 August 1809, a sheet of information called Aviso al público appeared in Manila, and it came out a second time on the following 11 September.
But because it was not regularly published, even if it was a printed document, we do not think it merits inclusion in the category of regularly published newspapers. It is a Spanish-language daily broadsheet newspaper.
It was conceptualized and founded by Manuel Moreno on 11 October 1847.
It's first issue was released on 1 January 1848.
The publication lasted for nearly four decades up to the end of the Spanish regime. It is an illustrated semi-monthly newspaper founded by Spanish-Filipino Jose Zaragoza y Aranquizna
It was established on 1 March 1859 and it ceased publication on 15 December 1860 A political propaganda paper that was created in 15 February 1889 and existed up to 15 November 1895.
It was first headed by Graciano López Jaena, but soon taken over by Marcelo H. del Pilar, who became the driving force behind the paper. Under his direction, the paper, although in limited circulation, drew the attention on politicians and even Spanish ministers.
Its existence became the principal organ of the propaganda movement. It was founded by Gen. Antonio Luna and his brother Joaquin on 3 September 1898.
It was the first paper through which the Filipino nationalists had ever had an opportunity to express themselves freely.
It devoted itself entirely to propaganda in favor of independence from Spain and against the much hated Friars, who were blamed for all the oppression which the natives had suffered. Many of the more liberal minded Spaniards were in sympathy with the policy of La Independencia. It succeeded La Independencia as the official organ of the revolutionary government.
It was published in Malolos, Bulacan and began semiweekly in September 1898 continuing until fighting broke out between the Americans and Filipino forces on 4 February 1899.
The name was changed to Heraldo Filipino and later to Gaceta de Filipinas.It was put up by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo on 14 July 1898 in his effort to unify his armies.
It helped inform the people and inspired them to unite for the cause of freedom. The history of the free press in the Philippines has its roots in nationalistic newspapers published in Europe and in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial rule.
The Del Superior Gobierno, our first newspaper, was an unmistakable replica of the Spanish newspaper - Gazeta de la Regencia de España Indias. The columns of the publication were oriented towards a discussion of the great themes formed by the national opinion. The war against Napoleon and the debates in the Cortes monopolized attention.All of these factors contributed to the birth of the political press. Yet, if we analyze the newspapers, we shall see that the first began by publishing patriotic declarations and noting items that could be described as simple announcements of the news. Despite press freedom, the official newspapers played a very important role. Del Superior Gobierno A faithful thermometer of the vitality of the public, the newspaper reflects the society in which it is born, the factors giving it life, and the needs it satisfies. We are thus aware that matter included in the newspapers - official or private, censored or free - offers to researchers elements of priceless value for the reconstruction of the past. El Diario De Manila La Ilustracion Filipina In their editorial announcement in the first number the editors in stating their aims and ambitions said in part:
"The Philippines is one of the countries least known in Europe and of which the most misinformation exists, because of the erroneous description of some of the few travelers who have visited here. Not having remained long enough to form a correct idea, they have credited absurd stories, generally unfavorable to the islands, in an effort to give interesting accounts of their voyages, and have created erroneous impression."
"We have had investigators, laboring for the good of the country, without result, because they saw what the titled officials wanted them to see and got little actual knowledge of the country. We venture into this field of journalism to contribute what we can toward the dissemination of information concerning this land where the hand of providence has scattered blessings with such abundance. We shall try to do what has never been done here before, publish a paper combining the artistic, scientific and the literary, in harmony with the march of progress. We shall endeavor to make it useful as well as entertaining."
But their dream was never realized. The aims of La Solidaridad, as expressed in the editorial of its first issue, are described as to collect, to gather, libertarian ideas which are manifested daily in the field of politics, science, art, literature, commerce, agriculture and industry. It shall also discuss all problems relating to the general interest of the nation and seek solutions to those problems in high-level and democratic manner. With regard to the Philippines, since she needs the most help, not being represented in the Cortes, it shall pay particular attention to the defense of her democratic rights, the accomplishment of which is its patriotic duty. It is the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan.
It illustrates the cruelties committed by the civil guards and Spanish friars against Filipino. The call for the Filipino people to revolt against the Spain was evident in the articles contained in the newspaper.
It had its first and last print on March 1896. The paper expressed friendship for America to whom it referred as "that great country to which we are united with bonds of sincere friendship."
It supported General Aguinaldo, whom it hailed as "our fellow citizen, the living incarnation of the revolution." The 1896 Revolution and the Spanish-American War of 1898 ended. Emilio Aguinaldo declared the first Philippine Independence. However, the Filipinos' dream of absolute sovereignty was derailed with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. The Spanish was introduced to freedom press when the French troops occupied Madrid. The French favored an excessively free press in the occupied zone, taking advantage for their own cause of all the instruments of communication which traditionally had been at the service of the crown. Gaceta de Madrid - published to serve the French cause and seek popular support by means of the news spread through this medium.
El Amante de la Constitucion - the first frankly constitutional paper and it was therefore hated by the reactionaries. Its activities apparently resulted in the birth of five or more opposition papers. Conclusion During that time, communication wasn't very clear and free to all.
Most of the publications were written in Spanish so the audience of print media then was limited to those who could understand and read the language.
The aim was to raise the level of consciousness with respect to oppressive conditions prevailing in the country then. These newspapers were mainly written and published by the so-called ilustrados.
The use of the power of the pen by the early heroes proved the feasibility of using non-violent strategies for social and political reforms.