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M3: Function: gaseous exchange; mechanisms of breathing (in

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Harry Williams

on 17 June 2014

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Transcript of M3: Function: gaseous exchange; mechanisms of breathing (in

M3: Function: gaseous exchange; mechanisms of breathing (inspiration and expiration); lung volumes, eg tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume; control of breathing (neural and chemical)
Diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream:
The air breathed in will arrive inside the alveoli which is rich in oxygen, the blood will then arrive from the pulmonary artery which is very low in oxygen, therefore because of diffusion the oxygen moves across the capillary wall and into the blood stream, as red blood cells have haemoglobin inside, this attracts the oxygen across. from here the blood is returned to the heart and will then be pumped around the rest of the body.
Diffusion of carbon dioxide out of the blood stream:
the blood which has a high concentration of carbon dioxide in it will arrive in the capillaries of the lungs, but the alveoli have a low concentration of carbon dioxide and therefore is moved across to the alveolis which it can then be expired from.

The mechanisms of breathing
The mechanisms of breathing, breathing in is inspiration and breathing out is expiration. Breathing occurs by the respiratory centre which is located in your brain and the receptors that are in the air passages and lungs. So that you are able to breath the thorax must increase and then decrease in it’s size. Inspiration is the process of breathing in to do this the diaphragm contracts and flattens (which pulls it down) which makes the chest cavity larger and draws air in. Expiration is the process of breathing out, to do this the diaphragm relaxes allowing it to expand and move back up to where it was in the thoracic cavity.

Lung volumes
Lung volumes is the physical differences in the lung volume, in this includes: tidal volume, vital capacity, residual volume; control of breathing (neural and chemical) In human lungs the average pair of lungs can carry roughly 6 litres of air, however only a small amount of this is actually used during normal breathing.
Tidal volume is the volume of air that you inspire or expire per breath, this is approximately 500ml while resting).

vital capacity, residual volume and control of breathing
Your vital capacity is your inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume. You can get this by breathing in as much as you can, then once done, force as much of the air out of your lungs as you can (done better with specialist equipment).
Residual volume is the air left in your lungs after you have breathed out as much as possible, this is approximately 1200ml.
Control of breathing is what it says it is, and how your breathing is controlled. Neural is where you make yourself breath so it’s voluntary, chemical is the opposite for when you are a made to breath due to a lack of oxygen.

gaseous exchange
diffusion is where gases move from an area of high concentration to a area of low concentration. There is 2 types of diffusion in the respiratory system, these are:
Diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream, attracted by haemoglobin
Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide out of the blood stream to be excreted by the lungs
Internal respiration is in the muscle cells and external respiration is in the alveoli. Mo Farah is a good sporting example because he needs good gaseous exchange as he is an aerobic athlete and it will help him in his sport.
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