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Recent Trends in Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching
Transcript of Recent Trends in Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching
Still used in classrooms today Technology in Education A timeline The Overhead Projector 1930 Tool used for displaying a variety of preprinted information for students to copy, images to illustrate a lesson, and interactive opportunities The Scantron 1972 Reduced time spent marking multiple choice tests
Very useful for large classrooms. The CPU 1980 Classrooms in the 1980's often had one or two computers The LCD Projector 1984 Updated version of slide projectors and overheads
Introduced classrooms to alternate kinds of media such as video clips, more vibrate pictures, and interesting presentations like Power Point. The Interactive Smartboard 1999 One of the most radical developments in classroom technology
Creates a unique interactive learning experience
Allows for educational games and lessons to be projected and enables active student participation The iclicker 2005 Allows teachers to assess students through quizzes and to receive results in real time
Allows students to see results
Can be used as a tool for large classrooms and also to initiate participation Most influential of electronic tablets
iPads provide an interactive and creative way to engage students in all facets of learning from dictionary apps to word processing to entire libraries all at their fingertips The ipad 2010 More kids aged 2-5 can play with a smart phone (19%)
than tie his or her shoes (9%)
More children can open a web browser (25%) than swim (20%) We Interrupt this Program...
For an activity! Disadvantages Recent Trends in Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teaching
Nathan King Crossing Frontiers: New Directions in
Online Pedagogy and Research, 2004 Rethinking Task Design for
the Digital Age, 2006 second wave of online language learning research
brought a "sociocognitive" turn focusing on: context, interaction and multimedia networking
shift from quantitative to qualitative methods
interest in long-distance collaboration projects
3 key themes:
1) Linguistic interaction
2) Intercultural learning
3) Literacy and identity Crossing Frontiers, 2004 Linguistic Interaction Intercultural Learning Literacy & Identity Rethinking Task Design for the Digital Age, 2006 3 level approach (Richards & Rodgers 2001):
Approach: theories and principles of language learning guiding teaching.
Design: objectives of method, types of tasks, role of learner/teacher, syllabus, etc.
Procedure: practical realization of the method in the classroom; actual techniques and practices. Important vocab
for this article:
CALL Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Lyceum "A synchronous audiographic environment like Lyceum with its written, spoken and graphic modes might resemble a face-to-face setting more than an asynchronous written environment..."
joint production of texts and images
online connection allows users to import text or images from the Web
simultaneity of certain modes (e.g audio and text chat)
subconferences for group work
lack of body language: improves turn-taking “The highly flexible, interactive and multimodal aspects of online communication made it an ideal medium for exploration and expression of identity (Warschauer, 2002).”
- People don’t just speak a language they speak
particular social positions.
- The whole concept of authorship is changing
through new media, anyone can be an author online
- Its not only about knowing how to read and
write in a second language online, it is also the
ability to negotiate new roles and identities.
- Every person has their own identity and it is
portrayed partly through their language focuses on the use of authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language. Assessment is primarily based on task outcome rather than on accuracy of language forms.
may be applied to CALL and CMC
Ex: students take the role of magazine editors and must negotiate to come to a consensus of what will be displayed on the front cover -language programs and activities on the computer.
-Online dictionaries, grammar correctors
-Internet Technology allows for:
Process oriented tasks
There are two types of collaboration:
Synchronous – direct, constant communication
Asynchronous – delayed communication - Task: “meaning based activities closely related to learners’ actual communicative needs and with some real-world relationship, in which learners have to achieve a genuine outcome and in which effective completion of the tasks is accorded priority.”
- Due to the recent social focus in language learning, tasks must have learners collaborate with others. engaging for new generation
allows for new tasks different than in-class tasks
possibility of long distance communication
able to be modernized and updated quickly for changes in SLA theory, current events etc.
fosters holistic and democratic learning environments: student-focused, equal privileges in chat rooms
shared authentic material, incorporating visual, aural, and written
information-gap --> Negotiation of meaning
more convenient interaction due to distance constraints •Any communicative transaction that occurs through the use of two or more networked devices. Refers to anything from instant messaging and chat rooms to email and social networking software/websites. Negotiation of meaning:
•Blake (2000) jig-saw tasks
- limited to lexical units rather than syntax
•Pelletierri (2000) chat room/ chat logs
- enhanced metalinguistic awareness
•Research evaluated impact of cultural misunderstandings on the willingness to negotiate meaning, Language outcomes:
•Abrams (2003) chat room-based CMC
- increased quantity over quality of language production
•Sotillo (2000) asynchronous online activities
- promoted more syntactical complexity
•Suggested that research focus more on: long-term effects of SLA, transferal of online language use to face-to-face situations & development of grammar. lack of funding/socioeconomically unavailable
potential to distract
sociocultural differences impede negotiation of meaning
CMC favours quantity over quality
monolingual online setting creates language barriers for some students
•Intercultural Learning: focus on enhancement of learners’ language development and cultural/intercultural competence.
•Intercultural competence: capacity to view own culture in dynamic relation to another group’s perspective.
•Some studies demonstrated that cross-cultural understanding did NOT automatically result from online communication.
Muller-Hartmann (2000) - joint reading supported students’ intercultural competence, positive attitudes, interpretive skills and intercultural literacy
Furstenberg (1993) - "Cultura" problematized cultural literacy through juxtapositions of materials, interpretations and responses to interpretations
Article suggests importance of:
1)Successful participation in different contexts (
2)Learners’ sensitivity to one another’s cultural identities
3)Teacher involvement •Task design needs to be based on the medium (what kind of tool you’re using), the mode (whether the tool is visual, aural, written, or a combination), and the affordances (restrictions of the tool and the mode).
•Simply “copying and pasting” face-to-face tasks to CMC mediums is not possible, because CMC has different constraints when it comes to task design than face-to-face interaction.
•Learners need to first develop an “electronic literacy” so that they can navigate the online tools appropriately and use them to their best advantage.
•The best tasks will use authentic materials, individual and group learning, a combination of modes, and tasks that are appropriate to learning goals that have been explicitly stated. Reasons to adapt tasks:
1) fluctuation in student numbers
2) students’ needs/interests diverged from tutor’s plans and impacted direction of tutorial, and
3) timing of tasks took longer than outlined. •student-centred tasks, interaction and communication, beneficial when students forced to come to an agreement.
•weaker students dominated by stronger students in group discussions. Some students not motivated, since tutorials were not assessed. Observed differences of Online Classroom:
-No body language
-Silences difficult to decipher (student just thinking, or have they left the computer?)
-Turn-taking not as evident in online environment
-Communication can be slower
-Need for training of online platforms
* Remember to tell us what differences you find during the activity * 1. Can online learning lead to new literacies that cannot be developed through face-to-face interaction? 2. How might CMC enhance knowledge about/exposure to sociocultural differences? 4. As teachers, will technology play an important role in your classroom and in your language activities? 3. Is there an "ideal" age group for teaching using online learning? “Discuss the role of English (lexical borrowing, etc.) in your L1 and the effects concerning: preservation of culture, cultural assimilation, globalization, effect of technology, etc.”