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Chapter 17 and 18: Russia's Landscape and Nation-States

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Bryan Poepperling

on 29 February 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 17 and 18: Russia's Landscape and Nation-States

Mr. Poepperling
Unit 4: Europe and Russia
Ch. 17 and 18: Russia's Landscape and Nation-States

Geographic Setting (Russia's landscape)
Tectonic Plate Movement in Russia
Volcanic Activity in Russia
Signs of Erosion in Russia
Welcome to Russia!
Ticket out of the Door
1. What the difference is between a nation, state, and nation-state?

2. Name and describe five factors that determine the success or failure of a country.

3. Why did countries break away from the
Soviet Union? (Name 5 of them)
Standards and Objectives

SS.912 G4.9 and SS.912 G6.1
1. Describe two physical processes that shape the land from below and two that work above Earth's crust

2. Explain the make-up of planet Earth and the physical features of Russia

3. Explain what the difference is between a nation, state, and nation-state; explain how 5 nations came to be in Russia
Signs of Glaciation in Russia

- Russia covers almost 7 million square miles that stretch from Europe across Asia to the Pacific Ocean
- Eastern edge of Russia
= Caucasus mountains
- Western edge of Russia
= Siberia
Geographic Setting (Russian Nation-States)
- From 1945 to 1990 the Soviet Union and the United States
were the world's two great superpowers
- In 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed because of a failing
government, economy, and a decline in Soviet nationalism
Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan
- The lithosphere is made up of huge tectonic plates; their movement causes earthquakes
- The plates float like rafts on Earth's liquid mantle
Kazakhstan:

Central Asian giant surrounded by China, Russia, and the Caspian Sea
Belarus and Lithuania
Russia: Largest Nation on Earth
Three layers make up Earth:
- Describe each in your notebooks
- The core
- The mantle
- The lithosphere (crust)
Four physical processes shape Earth:
- Describe each in your notebooks

3. Tectonic movement

4. Volcanic activity


1. Erosion

2. Glaciation
- Describe what happens when tectonic
plates run into each other in your
notebooks
Creation of mountains:
- Tectonic plate collisions create mountains
in two ways-
Give examples in your notes
1. Fold Mountains
2. Fault Mountains
Signs of tectonic movement in Russia:
1. Ural Mountains

2. Caucasus Mountains

3. West Sayan Mountains
- Like earthquakes, volcanoes can reshape the landscape with awesome force
Volcano: magma that pushes its way to the Earth's surface through cracks in the crust
- The magma that erupts is called lava
- Volcanic eruptions change Earth's surface in two ways:
- Creation of land or islands once magma cools on Earth's surface: Ex. the Hawaiian islands
Signs of volcanic activity in Europe:
1. Kliuchevskoi
Volcano

2. Maly Semyachik Volcano

3. Krenitsyn
Volcano
- Erosion takes place everywhere on Earth's surface through
wind, moving water, moving ice, and gravity
- Describe each of these forces in your notes
- Wind: erodes land by picking up tiny grains of dirt and carries them to distant places

- Moving water: rivers carve away the land to create deep "V" shaped valleys

- Glaciers: their weight and enormous pressure carves out
the land and creates new landforms and deep lakes

- Gravity: A constant force on the landscape, anything not
rooted or attached to a slope will eventually move downhill because of gravity
Signs of Erosion in Russia:
- Describe each

1. The Volga River

2. The Amur River

3. The Lena River
- In the coldest places on Earth, large fields of snow turn into ice that stays frozen all year:

these masses of ice are called glaciers
Geographers have identified two kinds of glaciers:
1. Continental glaciers
- huge thick sheets in areas with extremely cold climates

2. Alpine glaciers
- forms in high mountain valleys where snowfall is plentiful; rivers of ice slide downhill pulled by gravity
*Reshaping the Earth:
- Glaciers move very slowly and can grind solid rock into dirt and move massive amounts of land over long distances*
Signs of Glaciation in Russia:
-Describe each in your notes

1. The Kolka Glacier

2. The Amanauzsky Glacier

3. The Glaciated Yamal Peninsula

- Describe each of the 5 factors critical to the success of a nation-state in your notes

1. Security
2. Political freedom
3. Economic growth
4. Quality of life
5. National unity
How did the Soviets fail in each of these factors?

1. USSR- secret police made people feel uneasy
2. Soviet Union was ruled by dictators
3. Soviet GDP rose slowly or not at all
4. Quality of life was dropping in the USSR
5. Ethnic groups created their own states
U.S.S.R.=
Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
- Greatest resource is its minerals
- large deposits of coal, lead, copper, iron, and zinc
- Ethnic Conflict:
- Kazakhs vs. Russians
- religious and cultural differences
Azerbaijan:
Sits at the foot of the Caucasus mountains, and one of the crossroads where Europe meets Asia
- Greatest resource is its huge oil deposits
- Opens its oil to trade with many foreign countries
- Ethnic Conflict:
- Azeris vs. Armenians
- ethnic and religious problems
Belarus:
Often covered by snow,
forests and located next to Russia
- Landlocked country
- agriculture and logging are no longer
a part of its economy because of Chernobyl
- Trade: mostly with Russia
- Russians influence its culture and
government
Lithuania:
Known as Baltic States along with Latvia and Estonia
- Economy:
based on soil and sea
- Fertile soil and trading ports near Baltic sea are key
- Unity:
joining organizations
- Joined the E.U. in 2004
- Joined NATO as well
- Although Russia is not as large as the Soviet Union was, it is still huge with vast forests and large deposits of minerals and natural resources
3 important natural resources are:
- coal
- oil
-natural gas
- In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed and Russia was born
*Fossil fuels*
Life in Russia is not easy
- The crime rate is high
- Not all of the 142 million ethnic groups
want to be part of Russia
- Religious division exists between Orthodox
Christians, Muslims, Jewish, and Buddhist groups
Chechnya:
- Opposition to Russian
rule has led to rebellion

- In 1994, Russian military crushed the independence movement

- More than 100,000 Chechens died in the war that followed
Above Earth's crust
Below Earth's crust
- Ash can bury vegetation, mudslides can be created, and volcanoes can collapse, leaving craters
Ticket out of the Door
Ch. 17 L1
1. Describe the layers that make up the inside of the Earth.

2. What processes shape the Earth above the crust? Describe each.

3. What processes shape the Earth below the crust? Describe each.
Full transcript