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History- Chronicle of a Death Foretold

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William Hercek

on 8 October 2014

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Transcript of History- Chronicle of a Death Foretold

Chronicle of a Death Foretold
Marquez' Biography
A Blood Feud occurs when a family is dishonored by another family and the only way to restore honor is to kill the person(s) who took it away from them.
Honor is taken very seriously in Colombian culture and if a person/family is without honor they are outcast by the community. It is therefore socially acceptable to retrieve honor in the form of a blood feud.
The Vicario twins didn't want to kill. But in Colombian culture family and family honor are of the up-most importance leaving the twins with no choice but to kill to regain there sisters honor.
Blood Feud
-The immigrants were responsible for the significant spread of commerce in Columbia's coast
-In the early 20th century, most Muslim migrants converted to Catholicism
-In 1945, it was estimated that one out of six Syro-Lebanese family fathers was married to a Colombian woman
-Made significant marks in politics (Gabriel Turbay- Lebanese Columbian memberr of House of Representatives)
-By mid 20th century, much Arabic culture and language was lost
(Marquez: “answering their Arabic-speaking parents in Spanish")
-Continued-
Men
Gender Roles and Machismo
-can promote the contest of dangerous activities
Machismo Negatives
Gabriel Garcia Marquez
Early life:
Born in 1928 in Aracataca, Northern Colombia.
Raised by his maternal grandparents
Papalelo (Grandfather)- Shaped Marquez' political and ideological ideas with his war stories and horrifying accounts of the civil war.
Doña(Grandmother)- She was Marquez' "source of the magical, superstitious and supernatural view of reality". Which is reflected in his writing as "Magical realism"
Middle life:
Marquez' Biography
After finishing his early schooling years he attended Jesuit College, studying law.
Quit studying law to work as a journalist
When his father found out that he left law school to become a writer he said that Marquez would "eat paper" for the rest of his life
Marquez' Biography
Later life:
He wrote a number of amazing novels and short stories.
Awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1982.
“For his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts.”
Columbian Geography, History, Ethnicity, Culture, Religion
Geography
Columbia is located in northwestern South America
Has a population of over 47million
Has an area of more than 2million squared kilometers!
Has a number of terrain including:
Highlands
The Amazon Rainforest
Tropical Grassland
Both the Caribbean and Pacific coastlines
Colombian History
Colombian Ethnicity
Colombian Culture
Colombian Religion
Time line of Colombian history
Prehistory
Due to its geographical location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of populations between Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, the Andes and the Amazon
Pre-Colombia
Colombia was inhabited by indigenous people.
Hunter gather societies.
Traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and salt with neighboring nations
Had a developing political system
Spanish Conquest (1499–1525 AD)
In 1508 the conquest of the territory started.
The indigenous population of colombia experienced a dramatic drop due to the introduction of diseases (small box) which they had no immunity too.
Europeans began to bring slaves from Africa
The Spanish settled along the north coast of today's Colombia
Slaves were introduced as labor.
to protect the indigenous population decimating, reservations were created
A number of political legislations were created however only a few survived.
Colonial Times (1525–1808)
Independence from Spain (1808–1824)
There were several rebel movements under Spanish rule, most of them were either crushed or remained too weak to change the overall situation.
The last one which sought outright independence from Spain sprang up around 1810.
The 20th of July, 1810 was when colombian recieved independence
Post-independence and republicanism (1824–1930)
Colombia was the first constitutional government in South America.
After a two-year civil war in 1863, the "United States of Colombia" was created.
1886 was when the country finally became known as the Republic of Colombia.
The Violence and the National Front (1930–1974)
"The violence": Took place between the late 1940s and the early 1950s and claimed the life of 180,000 colombians
From 1953 to 1964 the violence decreased.
The Colombian Conservative Party and Colombian Liberal Party agreed to create the "National Front", a coalition which would jointly govern the country
This is the time period of which a 'Chronicle of a Death Foretold' was set.

The present day
The Colombian Government made significant progress in the institutional presence of the Colombian State.
There has been an overall reduction in violence
Colombia is now creating an economy that is today considered attractive and prosperous
Revolves around:
95% christian
1% indigenous religion
1% Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism
3% Without religious belief

Role of 19th century Arab Immigration
into Colombia
-Late 19th century, they emigrated from Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel and Palestine due to financial difficulties and Ottoman oppression
-Although some were Islamic, most were Christians (Catholics/Maronites)
-Settled mostly in the northern coast (port towns and coastal trading centres including Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta, and Maicao), where initially they were involved in small-scale peddling but over time transitioned to be part of wholesale import-export trading and large-scale fabric businesses
-Machismo, Definition: a strong aggressive sense of masculinity and pride in masculinity
-Derived from Spanish which has a meaning over the male supremacy over women
-It has originated from Latin American culture and as far back as Ancient Rome, in western culture today we see examples of Machismo around us
Machismo Positives
-men have a right to feel proud and protect their family honour
-the usual work ethic of a man of machismo is hardworking, committed.
-Someone who is seen as a 'Macho' man is eligible through negatives ability
-Men under peer pressure from machismo perform brutal acts upon others including their wife
Patriarchal Authority
-Definition: the social system where the man is the central figure of
the family, who controls property, and authority over women and
children
-Women must consult the man on almost everything
-It shows the domination of men over women and many feminists
believe it oppresses women
How this relates to the book
-Machismo is very evident in Santiago Nasar's and Bayardo San
Roman's character
-"He was the man in my life" p.7
-"Bayardo San Roman shot off rockets, drank cane liquor from the
bottles the crowd held out to him" p.44
-"He seemed too much of a man for me" p.34
Female Roles
-Hispanic and Latin American women are viewed as the carer
in such cultures
-They are also obligated to serve and support their husband at all
times
-Being a wife and mother is very important in hispanic culture
-Quinceniera the importance of marriage
How this relates to the book
-Angelo Vicario's agreement to arranged marriage
-Jobs of the characters in the book
-"She knew everything before anyone else in the house, in spite
of the fact that she hadn’t gone onto the street in years, not
even to attend mass.” p.20
Hispanic Honour Killings
-Definition: the homicide of a member of a family or social group,
due to the belief that the victim has brought dishonour upon the
family or community.
-Often undertaken by members of the same family

How this relates to the book
-The whole book is focused on an honour killing
-Following some of the well known rules of honour killings Angela
Vicario is almost killed herself
-“ I felt as if the drowsiness of death had been finally lifted from me
and the only thing I wanted was for it all to be over quickly” p.47
-The tradition of honour killings is shown to be taken very seriously

Genre:Revenge Tragedy and chronicle of past events
-Definition: the act of inflicting punishment in retaliation to previous
wrongs or injuries
-The first revenge tragedy, 'The Spanish Tragedy' written by Thomas
Kyde 16th Century
-Led to one of the most famous revenge tragedies 'Hamlet' by William
Shakespeare

Characteristics of a Revenge Tragedy
-Often a Revenge Tragedy involves a single main protagonist
and his revenge
-Their is a wrongdoing that must cause the revenge
-There is some level of carnage involved
Revenge Tragedy in the book
-The wrongdoing-the taking of Angela Vicario's virginity
-The protagonists-Pablo and Pedro
-There is mutilation in the body of Santiago Nasar
-The twins take a journey filled with adversity
-Use of fate
Some things that do not make the book a revenge tragedy
-There is no 'main' protagonists in the book
-Is the Death of Santiago Nasar driven by the twins lust for
the revenge of Santiago Nasar or the following of tradition and
Honour?
-The killing does not seem to be personal



Story is told by the narrator who is also a character
Refers to this viewpoint character with 'I' and 'We'
Forms (interior, dramatic, peripheral, plural, explicit)

First person and multiple perspectives narration
FIRST PERSON
Effect
-Narrator gives his/her take on what happened (thoughts, judgements and opinions).
-Readers learn about events and characters completely from the narrator's views. Consequently, the narrator does not give readers a full picture of what happened- not allowing them to understand the thoughts of other characters as much as their own.
-Narrator is limited in his/her knowledge of events, thus creating sense of mystery
-Narrator reliability- story's truthfulness is completely dependent on narrator (he/she has the ability to close off information)

Multiple perspectives
Narration from numerous viewpoints
Different accounts of same event
Builds reliability, not just one person
Gives readers overall impression of events and characters
What do you think Chronicle of Death Foretold is written in?

-Told in first person, but integration of multiple perspectives (direct quotes and indirect statements)
-Narrator seems to be connected with everyone
-Narrator is close to both the Vicarios and Santiago
'We've the same ties to the Vicarios that we do with her' (p.22- referring to Santiago's mother)
-Limited bias in that narrator is quite balanced in relationships to both sides
-Multiple perspectives override the norms of first person narration allowing readers to look beyond the thoughts of the narrator and build balanced understanding of events and characters

Chronicle of Death Foretold
Magical realism as a worldview

What is magical realism?
There is much ambiguity in the definition of magical realism
Some definitions....

Magical realism is a genre which incorporates magical elements in an otherwise realistic environment. It fuses reality with fantasy, however it differs from pure fantasy as it is set in a normal world with real descriptions of humans and society.
Professor Matthew Strecher defines magic realism as "what happens when a highly detailed, realistic setting is invaded by something too strange to believe." Magical realism creates a 'conception of the real': it offers a world view that is not based on natural or physical laws, nor objective reality.
HISTORY
-Conceptualized by German art critic Franz Roh in 1925
(comparisons with surrealism)
-Origins from German painting style known as 'New
Objectivity'
-Adopted by Latin America literature in the 1940s
(Jorge Luis Borges- A Universal History of Infamy)

-Fantastical elements
-Sense of mystery
-Author reticence (withholding of information about the supernatural world and fantastic events)
-Political critique

Characteristics
-Dreams and Omens
“He'd dreamed he was going through a grove of timber trees where a gentle drizzle was falling, and for an instant he was happy in his dream, but when he awoke he felt completely spattered with bird shit."

-Worldly premonition
-Juxtaposition of images (Escapism and Political Critique)


CHRONICLE OF A DEATH FORETOLD
Other Examples
-Grand description of brothel (Maria Alejandrina Cervantes)
-"Everything continued smelling of Santiago Nasar that day" p.78 (guilt)
-Widower Xius dying of sadness

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