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Prejudice, Tolerance, and Racism

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Sawyer Laine

on 1 September 2013

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Transcript of Prejudice, Tolerance, and Racism

Racism, Prejudice,
and Tolerance
By: Sawyer
Language Arts 8
Mrs. McNamara
Anne Frank Major Assignment
Definition of Racism
rac·ism/reszm/ Show Spelled [rey-siz-uhm]
noun
1. a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human races determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to rule others.
2. a policy, system of government, etc., based upon or fostering such a doctrine; discrimination.
3. hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.
Definition of Prejudice
prej·u·dice/prdds/ Show Spelled [prej-uh-dis]
noun
1. an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.
2. any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable.
3. unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group.
Definition of Tolerance
tol·er·ance/tlrns/ Show Spelled [tol-er-uhns]
noun
1. a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward those whose opinions, practices, race, religion, nationality, etc., differ from one's own; freedom from bigotry.
2. the act or capacity of enduring; endurance: My tolerance of noise is limited.
What do these words mean?
Adolf Hitler
Leader of the Nazi party during the second world war
Among the most historically known figures
Goal was to create a 'pure German' race and to rule the world
Lived 1889-1945
Adolf Hitler: Racist, Intolerant, and Prejudice
Adolf Hitler was a truly horrid man. He was extremely racist and prejudice against most minorities, especially Jews, Gypsies, people with physical or mental disabilities, and Jehovah’s Witnesses (a religious group).He had no tolerance for them so he led the Nazi party to such extremes as starving them, shooting them, putting them in concentration camps, over-working them to near death/death, putting them in gas chambers, and killing them. Jews and others were put to death for the simple reason that they were disliked by other people (mainly the Nazis)because of what they believed in. Hitler believed they were not 'pure Germans' and were an inferior race.
World War II
In 1918 just after Germany had lost the entire first world war,which they had been blamed for. Many war torn countries were insisting that Germany pay for the damage costs. This set Germany into a depression, many people lost their jobs and began to starve. This is when the Nazi and Communist party began to overtake the devastated government.
The most famous and example of prejudice, intolerance and racism.
Communist and Nazi Parties Come Into Power
When the Germans fell into severe debt the Communist Party and the Nazi Party stepped up and claimed to have the solutions to all German problems.
Foreign Countries Come to Germany's Rescue and Prosperity Returns
Due to the American interest (commercial) the U.S.A. financed a lot of Europe's rebuilding and reparation efforts in Germany. Many other countries also came to the rescue, pouring money into Germany which helped them come closer to a stable economy. At this time (1924-1929) the power of both the Nazi and the Communist parties went down. When times were good for Germans they were bad for Nazi and Communist groups; when times were bad for Germans they were great for Communist and Nazi groups.
Stock Market Crash
In October 1929 the stock market on Wall Street crashed, causing a worldwide depression. This sent Germany crashing down to worse than they were after World War 1. Many people worldwide lost their jobs, their homes, and the wealth they once enjoyed. 5 million Germans were out of work by 1931. Times were tough for Germans so the Communist and Nazi parties began to rise.
Germans Turn to Nazism
It was quite obvious that when the stock market crash happened, something drastic needed to be done to get Germany back on its feet. Many of the Germans turned to Nazism as the solution, in fear of the Communists. The Germans were scared that they would live under Russian rulers and have their property seized by the government and/or state. Nazis began convincing the people that their way was "more German" than the Communist approach. Soon the Communists became known as " the Red Menace".
Nazis Begin To Target Jews
The Nazis, under the power of Adolf Hitler, began blaming innocent Jewish people for all of Germany's issues. The Jews became scapegoats for the Nazis, being blamed for causing the inflation, creating the depression, and causing Germany to lose the first World War. Hitler's reasoning? Nothing sensible, the Jews suffered in the depression just as much as any other German; they even fought in World War 1 for the Germans and 12000 of them gave up their life for their homeland during the war.

The Jews made up barely one percent of the total German population. There was about 525 000 Jewish citizens and 66 000 000 Germans total. For many, the main reason for joining Nazism was the desperate times, it seemed like a last resort chance. Most focused on the promises made rather than the hatred expressed toward Jews.

Nazi membership increased quickly and with that came more attacks on Jewish citizens. Nazis would often vandalize synagogues, burn books by Jewish authors, destroy cemeteries and graves of Jews, steal from Jewish shops, and beat them on the street. Germany was no longer a safe place to call home for Jews.
Anti-Jewish Laws are Developed and Put into Action
After Adolf Hitler came into power in 1933 he began to take legal steps to exterminate Jews. He passed many Anti-Jewish laws for example: no German could go to, buy from, or be in a Jewish owned store; Jewish children could not go to public schools; Jews could not work in or with the German government; Jews were forced to wear a yellow Star of David to show they were Jewish and Nazi stormtroopers were allowed to kill Jews in the streets.
The Franks
The Franks were one of the many Jewish families being effected by the Nazi takeover.
The Frank family became well known after World War 2 because of the diary that Anne, the youngest daughter in the family, wrote while hiding from the Nazis.
The Franks (continued)
The story of the Franks is a well known one. The story is written in hiding in Anne's diary which she named Kitty. It takes place during World War 2 and follows until nearly the end of the war. The story of the Franks will be shown throughout this presentation, so here we go:
Who Are the Franks?
Otto Frank
Otto Frank was born 12 May 1889 in Frankfurt Germany. His parents, Alice Betty Stern and Michael Frank, were quite wealthy.
When the First World War began he became a officer in the German army. Later he received a medal of bravery for his heroic acts during the war. After his time in the army he went into banking and business. He ran a business that sold spices and pectin(a product used when making jelly/jam.
On May 12, 1925 Otto got married to his first wife Edith Holländer. Soon after they had their first child, Margot Betti Frank(born February 16, 1926). Then on June 12, 1929 there second baby girl came, they named her Annelies Marie Frank.
Otto Frank was a great leader. He could keep disagreements calm, a good attitude when under extremely tense situations, and kept quiet courage. Rarely did he ever show his own feelings and was never bias. He was known as a tower of strength to many people.
Edith Frank
On January 6, 1900 Edith Holländer was born in Aachen, Prussia, German Empire. Her parents were Abraham Holländer and Rosa Stern.
On May 12, 1925 Edith got married to Otto Frank. Soon after they had their first child, Margot Betti Frank(born February 16, 1926). Then on June 12, 1929 their second baby girl came, they named her Annelies Marie Frank.
Edith Frank was reserved, calm, quiet, refined, intelligent, serious woman. She came from a wealthy background, much like her husband.
Margot Betti Frank
Margot Frank was born February 6,1926 of Edith and Otto Frank in Frankfurt, Germany. She was very close to her mother as they were very similiar in personality. She was gentle, calm, cool, collected, brilliant, mature, and obedient. Her dream was to move to Palestine and become a schoolteacher or nurse.
Anne Frank
Annelies Marie Frank was born on 12 June, 1929 in Frankfurt Germany. She was daughter to Otto Frank (who she called Pim) and Edith Frank. she adored her father, but would often fight with her mother.
She was a jubilant, fun, slightly vain, kind, smart, happy, cheerful, kind, analytical, silly, flirty, caring, sweet chatterbox. She was also very full of empathy, she often felt sorry for those who were suffering and tried very hard to show the better side of her.
She dreamed of becoming a singer or dancer. She was very interested in art and art history, Roman and Greek mythology, writing, and general history. She was also interested in the genealogy of the European Royal Family. Anne loved collecting and learning about what celebrities were doing; often she would hang pictures of them all round her room.
Overall Anne Frank was an extraordinary young lady.
The Franks Flee Germany in Fear of the Nazis
In 1933 Mr.Frank and his family moved to Holland with only the clothes on their back and a small sum of money. By this time 37000 other Jews had left Germany to get away from the Nazis.
Mr.Frank Prepares to Go Into Hiding
For a few years life was fairly good, but Mr.Frank realized the Nazis were coming closer invading Holland so he began to set up a hiding place they would call home until the Nazi storm passed. For 2 years Otto Frank brought small amounts of possessions to the annexe located above a business warehouse. He brought things such as canned food, dried vegetables, and boxes of clothing to the annexe.
The Nazis soon came and began the Aryanization of all Jewish Property. They went through Jewish households and take away all valuable possessions. Mr.Frank knew it was almost time to leave so he transferred his business and set a date to leave.
Then Nazis began deportation and Margot was called up. The Franks had to leave for their hiding place 8 days earlier than expected. All of them layered on as much of their clothing as they could and left. That night all except Margot walked to the secret annexe(Margot rides a bike).
Their days of hiding began July 9, 1942.
Tour of the
Secret Annexe
The Van Daans join the Annexe
Mr. Frank has invited a Jewish businessman and his wife and child to come in hiding with them. Now there is a total of 7 people in the annexe.
Who Were The Van Daans?
Actually the Van Daans are just the pseudonyms Anne used in her diary for the real family the van Pels.
Hermann van Pels
Mr. van Pels was a spice dealer and a butcher. He was very capable and knowledgeable about his trades so Mr. Frank had him as a close business partner. He was a stubborn man who complained often and was overall very grouchy and opinionated. Nevertheless he was a good father and a loving husband. He was married December 5, 1925 to Auguste Röttgen. Then on November 8, 1926 Peter van Pels was born, being their first and only child.
Auguste van Pels
Auguste van Pels was a passionate cook. She was vain, self-centered, energetic, funny, helpful, nervous, and easily excitable. During air raids she would often become hysterical which made everyone near her a bit more on edge. She got married to Hermann van Pels December 5, 1925, and then had her first and only child, Peter, on November 8, 1926.
Peter van Pels
On November 8, 1926 Peter van Pels was born in Osnabrück, Germany. He is the only child of Hermann and Auguste van Pels. He was a very insecure, shy, intelligent(but he did not believe this himself), quiet, young man. He loved going to play with his cat, Mouschi, in his room or the attic. He was often babied by his parents, which made him insecure, but overall he was a good man.
As you see from the video, conditions were very compact. There was many strict rules in this house. Some of those rules will be shown in the next few frames.
Rule #1
Move As Little As Possible During the Hours of 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m.
Since there were workers directly below the annexe, the residents had to be very quiet. If anyone below heard them they may be reported to the Nazis.
Rule #2
If You Need to Move Do So in Light Stockinged Feet
A stocking creates a sound barrier, so it is less likely to be heard when in motion.
Rule #3
Speak No Louder Than a Whisper
If anyone below hears speaking they may get suspicious and report to the Nazis.
Rule #4
Do Not Use the W.C. During the Day
The water pipes run down through the warehouse area, so if anyone heard water down the pipes that they didn't know existed it would cause suspicion.
Rule #5
You Must Burn All of Your Trash.
If anyone notices the level of trash in the work bins are higher than regular, or see odd things in the garbage(for example you wouldn't expect to come to work and find an old toothbrush in the trash) they may get suspicious.
Note: The conditions were even worse when burning garbage because of the foul odor and the extreme heat it caused.
Rule #6
Never Look Out the Windows
If anyone were to see standing in the window they would probably get suspicious and report to the Nazis.
The Residents Get a New Member
One day Mr. Kraler comes up to the annexe and asks if a Jewish dentist, Albert Dussel, can join them for a while as he will be caught very soon if he doesn't get help. Mr. Frank agrees to let him into the annexe. He shares a room with Anne and they quite often quarrel. Mr. Dussel is a quiet, old-fashion, friendly man; who when irritated in the annexe retreats the the w.c. where he enjoys his peace and quiet.
Annexe Residents Lifeline
With all these restrictions the annexe members needed a lot of outside help, these are the people that make life in the annexe possible. They help by bringing supplies, bringing news from the outside world, and keeping their secret safe.
Miep Gies
Mr. Koophuis
Mr. Kraler
Elli Vossen
Hope Was High in the Annexe!
All of the annexe members were excited. They had gotten news that the allies were coming soon and that the D-Day invasion had been successful. The power of the Nazis was rapidly decreasing. This meant the annexe members may be free soon!
All of the Annexe Residents Caught By Surprise When Annexe is Discovered By Nazis
On August 4th, 1944 Nazi officers stormed the secret annexe. As they marched up the stairs and found all the residents. The Gestapo went on a quick search for valuable items(money, jewelry, etc.) and then 2 hours late shoved the annexe residents into a police van.
First they went to the police station, where they were harshly questioned. After the questioning they were each put into separate cells and held there for several days. Without any notice the annexe members, now prisoners, were put on a passenger train and sent to Wetserbork, a transit camp in Holland.
The annexe members continued to keep their spirits high, with the allied invasion still fresh in their minds. The conditions at Westerbork were nowhere near enjoyable. The work days started at 5:00 a.m. and worked hard (crushing old batteries or assembling heavy cables) until sunset. They did this all on a near empty stomach, the only thing that they were fed was small portions of stale bread made of sawdust, watery soup, and a coffee substitute.
Although all the hardships were taking a toll on Anne she still managed to stay cheerful. she was delighted to talk to people other than the 7 annexe ex-residents and be outside, not closed in by the annexe walls.
Annexe Members are Sent to Auschwitz
The ex-residents of the secret annexe board the massive cattle cars on the last train to Auschwitz on September 3, 1944. The cattle cars were stuffy, dark, lice infested, and stinky. It was a 3 day, nonstop trip and the only the only form of washroom was a barrel in the corner. To make matters worse you were crammed in 80 people to a car and the only source for fresh air was a tiny window at the top of the car. Finally after the terrible train ride they arrived at Auschwitz.
Auschwitz
After the cattle car ride, the men and women were separated. There was no time for farewells, meaning this would be the last time Mr. Frank would ever see his daughters or wife again.
Next came selection. 10% of the most able-bodied prisoners would go to the right, where they would be forced to do hard labor. The other 90% went to the left, where they would soon meet there demise. The people chosen to go to the left and told they were going to bathe when they were actually going to be gassed were: children under fourteen along with there mothers, anyone with physical defects, elderly people, and people with mental handicaps. Those who were too sick to walk were loaded into trucks where they went to a "nursing station" where they met their demise.

All of the members of the secret annexe were sent to the right.
Secret Annexe Occupants are Prepared for Camp Life
Once selection is over the prisoners get groomed for camp life. This means have their head shaved and their clothes traded for dirty, ill-fitting pajamas to wear year round over there naked bodies. Next they were disinfected and branded, much like cattle. Since there was many contagious diseases being spread they had to disinfect the area(upper arm). To do this they rubbed a very strong, sting disinfectant into the prisoners' skin. Then each prisoner was given a number and had it tattooed on them, using an instrument tipped with a needle and dark blue dye. This was a very painful process, not only in the moment, but there arms swelled and hurt for many days after.
Hard Labor From Dawn Until Dusk
After awaking in the crowded barracks before sunrise, the prisoners would go and eat a minute breakfast of a coffee-like drink and stale bread partially made out of sawdust. They would then stand at attention outside their barracks for up to 3 hours during roll call in any type of weather. After roll call the work day began. All the women would digging sod and the men did intense, hard labor all day. Then roll call ended off the day after sunset.
The Fate of the Annexe Occupants
Mrs. Frank- starvation at Auschwitz
Mr. van Pels- during selection was chosen to be gassed at Auschwitz
Mrs. van Pels- No definite records of how she died,but most likely it was gassed, disease, or hunger. She died at Theresienstadt ghetto.
Mr. Dussel- disease in in Neuengamme concentration camp
Peter van Pels- exshaution from death march in Mauthausen
Margot Frank- Typhus in Bergen-Belsen
Anne Frank- typhus in Bergen-Belsen
Mr. Frank- survived Aushwitz, and died of lung cancer in 1981
Dairy of Anne Frank
After Otto Frank recovered from the life at Auschwitz, he went back to the secret annexe. There Miep Gies gave him Anne's diary. After a few years Mr.Frank decided to publish it. The diary was first published in July 1945. The diary of Anne Frank is now internationally recognized as a sign of hope.
Intolerance In World War 2
During World War 2 we see that the Nazi party was completely intolerant to the Jewish people simply because they were considered an inferior race. They could not accept that there were different religions in Europe, yet they were no less pure than anyone else.
Prejudice in World War 2
The Nazis decided that they should be in a higher class than Jewish people. It was prejudice of them to separate the targeted groups when there was nothing wrong with them, they were simply different.
Racism In World War 2
The Nazis spread false propaganda to show their superiority to the targeted races, these comments were racist because they were untrue, nasty things said to make sure the targeted races were not equal.
Other Examples of Racism, Prejudice, and Intolerance
1. Skin color segregation and inequality in the United States.
2. Women get the status of equal to men.
3. Residential Schools for First Nations to make them leave their own culture and practice European and Canadian culture against their will.

Communist
The Communists supported joining the communist power in Russia. Many people opposed Communism because they did not like the idea that they could not grow individually and worked for the benefit of themselves and all others under the power of communism. This had the potential to create a classless society.
Nazism
The Nazi Party was fierce competition for the Communists during this time. The Nazi Party wanted to rebuild a strong German government and military. The Nazi government would ensure that all the power in Germany was held be the wealthiest class and by "pure Germans". Nazism focused on racism by attempting to create a "pure German" race (blonde hair, blue eyes). Everyone else living in Germany that did not fit the strict rules was decided to be not good/real Germans and would be punished for this.
com·mu·nism noun
1. a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
2. ( often initial capital letter ) a system of social organization in which all economic and social activity is controlled by a totalitarian state dominated by a single and self-perpetuating political party.
3. ( initial capital letter ) the principles and practices of the Communist party.
4. communalism.

Leader of the Communist Organization
Josef Stalin
Na·zism noun
The ideology and practice of the Nazis, especially the policy of racist nationalism, national expansion, and state control of the economy.

Relationships
Mr.Frank and
Mrs.Frank
Mr. Frank and Anne
Mr. Frank and Margot
Mr. Frank and Mr. van Pels
Mr. Frank and Mrs. van Pels
Mr. Frank and Peter
Mr. Frank and Mr. Dussel
Anne and Mrs. Frank
Anne and Margot
Anne and Mrs. van Pels
Anne and Mr. van Pels
Anne and Peter
Anne and Mr. Dussel
Mrs. Frank and Margot
Mrs. Frank and Mrs. van Pels
Mrs. Frank and Mr. van Pels
Mrs. Frank and Peter
Mrs. Frank and Mr. Dussel
Mrs. van Pels and Peter
Mrs. van Pels and Margot
Mrs. van Pels and Mr. van Pels
Mrs. van Pels and Mr. Dussel
Mr. van Pels and Margot
Mr. van Pels and Mr. Dussel
Mr. van Pels and Peter
Margot and Mr. Dussel
Peter and Margot
Mr. Dussel and Peter
Mrs. Frank often initiates disagreements with Mrs. van Pels in response to her extremely opinionated and proactive comments. Mrs. van Pels would sometimes be reasonable and back down from the arguments, although she was also known to stand her ground.
Anne and Mr. Frank had a very strong relationship. Anne called her father Pim and was definitely closer to him than her mother. Anne would often confide in her father and, like most others in the annexe, would turn to him in tough situations. If Anne ever needed advice, help, or just someone to talk to Pim was almost always first choice. She shared her hopes, dreams, fears, feelings, and concerns with him, something that took extreme amounts of trust. Otto Frank was a role model for Anne and they were very similar in personality; they both enjoyed lightning the tense mood in the annexe with jokes, reading, learning, and they were both very optimistic.
Mr. Frank and Mr. van Pels were both business men, intelligent, and professional. Mr. van Pels was very opinionated and temperamental, which could cause problems in the annexe, although very rarely was he directly angered with Mr. Frank. These two men had respect for each other, despite their many differences .
Mrs. van Pels often flirted with Mr. Frank, despite being married. Mr. Frank did not agree with this.

Mr. Frank would try to calm Mrs. van Pels during the air raids, she was often hysterical during the attacks.
Mrs. Frank and Mr. Frank had a good marriage. Like any marriage it had its flaws. Mrs. Frank was slightly jealous of Mr. Frank, because Anne turned to him and only him for advice. Another instance of jealousy occurred when Mrs. van Pels flirted with Otto. Mrs. Frank thought Otto took this situation much too lightly, although it was very clear Mr. Frank did not agree with the flirting.

Like to many people Otto was a pillar of strength to Edith. Overall the marriage was quite stable.
Margot loved her father, although did not agree with all his practices. She believed in being a woman of strong faith, whereas her father (although still jewish) was not in attendance to all jewish faith related events.

Margot enjoyed most time spent with her father, although would often go to her mother for advice.
Mr. Frank encouraged Peter in many things and often helped him with school work. Mr. Frank respected him to date his daughter, but Peter was definitely not his ideal choice of boyfriend material for Anne.
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