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Schneewind - Unit 4: Implications

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William Kneeshaw

on 9 June 2013

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Transcript of Schneewind - Unit 4: Implications

By William Kneeshaw Schneewind Introduction Tells us how we adapt our needs.
To do this we must look at how we make ethical decisions
People are unsure what to live by (religion, law, etc.)
Whereas people used to live by religion, philosophers and scientists have created an uncertainty
We have started to evolve from theonomy to autonomy
We live how we like within the law
We create societies so that there is a sense of order
Although we have morals, we like to have guiding forces that keep us acting the correct way Hobbes Denies natural sociability
Stresses our self-interested aims
No ultimate goal, we are just constantly seeking more power
His theory is that political societies emerge from social contracts that make man, not God, the creator our power and peace.
According to 17th century scholars we need to have morality imposed on us Bayle Argued atheists could form a decent, moral, society Utilitarian We would not be able to settle moral debates without this method
Even though it relies on basic intuition
Cant have intuition without utilitarianism and visa versa
We are always effected by our own morals Hegal Moral personality needs to be formed by a community
Individual morality is not favoured over working as a community has far more benefits
John Dewey:
Individuals can work together to create solutions to social problems R. M. Hare The debate was structured by the thought that individuals should be able to make their own moral decisions and live in their own way Rawls Rejects utilitarianist thinking
Problems of justice cannot be solved by individual decisions
We require a social contract
But this should be autonomous Conclusion We need new ways of thinking
we cannot rely on the moral theory of the past

We shoud look less at finding more problems and more in how to solve the ones we already have Shaftesbury We are only virtuous to those people and ideas we approve of - Use virtue ethics, emotivism and LaFollette
People argued that virtue requires us to work for the good of others
Some say this comes from disapproval and others from intention "Action can only be right because it produces good" Hume Problem with this is justice
Following justice doesn't always bring the most favourable outcome
Hume said we must follow "An accepted practice of following know rules of justice Kant Deontology is about freedom
Our moral requirement is not to do something that is good, but to do something we legalise ourselves
We must always settle for what is right before knowing what is god
We shouldn't depend on laws... instead use motivation or guidance as we are fully autonomous Reid Common-sense morality - its embedded into us at birth
We know how to act morally without ethical theories Moral Philosophy Became more of a university study
Efforts to vindicate and explain autonomy
Efforts to assert the primacy of the community over an individual
Rejection of all religious and moral principles
Utilitarian's continued to attempt to derive principles of right actions purely from the consideration of what will bring about the most good Nietzsche Psychological forces us to act morally
We behave due to the struggle of power and envy towards those who have it G. E. Moore Concluded that morality does not come from statement of fact - our moral beliefs are reflections of our feelings If Morality is rational then so must the principles that are required
Therefore you do make your own moral decisions based on specific principles
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