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Introduction to Psychology
Transcript of Introduction to Psychology
Like science, it is a way to think critically and ask WHY?
The approach is very diverse (many schools of psychology, approaches, and theories. Subfields of Psychology Developmental
Studying our changing abilities from womb to tomb
Exploring the brain and its functions
Usually performed in labs, experiments done on a variety of topics
How we view and affect one another What is Psychology? Definition: The scientific study of human and animal behavior, something you CAN observe in different environments or situations.
It may be seen as a subject/discipline, science/research, or profession. Psychology is based on... IDENTIFY:
Control Once you develop a theory, what is the next step? 1. Develop a testable hypothesis
-An "If...Then" statement
-An educated guess
-How 2 or more variables are related
2. Design the study
-To choose design, look at what is being studied.
-Are there subjects? Who are they? How many? Why Study Psychology?? Practical-- The issues concern everyone
Like Science, how we think, feel, & act with roots in Philosophy and Biology.
Diverse- Variety of perspectives and approaches, different schools of thought, theories, and theorists. The Scientific Method Continued.. Collect the Data:
-Method to collect, depends on the study Step Four:
Analyze data and draw conclusions
-Does the statistics collected support your hypothesis? Step Five:
Report the findings and publish the research. Step Three: Research does 3 things--
1. describes information
2. explains information
3. predicts information Four Types of Descriptive Research 2. Case Study: In-depth investigation, usually one individual. 3. Longitudinal Study:
In-depth investigation over a LONG period of time of a group of subjects 4. Survey: Questionnaires or interviews 1. Naturalistic Observation: observing in natural habitat or surroundings Correlations predict relationships of your research:
- Looking for a relationship.
-NOT cause and effect
-when one variable occurs the other variable occurs
-when one variable does NOT occur the other variable does NOT occur
-strongest positive correlation is +1
-when one variable occurs or increases and the other variable does not occur or decreases
-strongest negative correlation is -1
-this means there is NO RELATIONSHIP
represented by a 0(zero) Illusory Correlation Believe there is a relationship between two things and recalling instances that confirm our belief.
Help explains a superstitious belief or deceive it.
A correlation helps to discount illusory correlations and random events that might look significant. To isolate cause and effect-->
experiment! Manipulate the factors
- The experimental factor manipulated is the Independent Variable
-The experiemental factor being measured is the dependent variable Holding constant other factors Mode- most frequent score
Mean- average of a distribution
Median- middle score in distribution
Range- the gap between the lowest and highest scores
Standard Deviation- how much scores deviate from one another Data: Inferences-
-Representative samples are better than biased samples
-Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable
-Large>Small When sample are large and homogeneous enough= difference is Statistical significance
(likelihood results will happen by chance!) Experimental Group (EG)
Subjects who receive the “special” treatment
Control Group (CG)
Subjects who do not get the treatment, real world often get placebo
Any effect on behavior not related to the treatment Random Assignment- Equal chance to be in Experimental or Control Group
Single Blind= participants do not know who recieved the treatment
Double Blind= neither participant nor researcher know who has treatment Ethics You may deceive but must fully debrief at the end.
Subjects have a right to privacy.
Their participation must be voluntary and procedures should not be harmful or dangerous.
Animals may not be harmed for trivial purposes only harmful with justification. Why Study Psychology?
Continued... Most Popular Undergraduate Major
Of the 30,000+ students at IOWA, 54% of them are in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Psychology moves towards preventing illnesses
Many of society's problems deal with behavior
Great preparation for other professions like business, law, & medicine. Subfields continued.. Clinical/ Counseling
Study, assessment, and treatment of psychological
disorders and everyday adjustment disorders.
Study and advise on behavior in the workplace.
Experimenting with how we perceive, think, and solve problems. Psychology Degrees- describe and explain behavior and mental processes Psychology vs. Psychiatry
-Advanced degree in psychology
-MD and residency in psychiatry
-Licensed to prescribe medications and treat physical causes of psychological disorders.