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Female Reproduction System

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Samantha Wiedmann

on 26 February 2016

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Transcript of Female Reproduction System

The Female Reproduction
System

The reproductive cells in females are
called eggs or ova (singular, ovum).
The functions of the female reproductive system are
to produce sex hormones
to produce eggs
to provide a nourishing environment in which a fertilized egg can develop into a baby
Structure and Function
The reproductive glands in which eggs are produced are called ovaries.
The sex hormone estrogen activates certain physical changes at puberty.
Progesterone activates changes to a woman’s reproductive system before and during pregnancy.
Once puberty begins, one of the ovaries releases a ripened egg about once every month in a process called ovulation.
Ovaries
Fallopian tubes are passageways that carry eggs away from the ovaries.
When the ovary releases an egg during ovulation, the fingerlike ends of the fallopian tube draw the egg into the tube.
The fallopian tubes are where fertilization
usually occurs.
Fallopian Tubes
The uterus is a hollow, muscular,
pear-shaped organ. In the uterus,
a fertilized egg can develop and grow.
When a baby is ready to be born,
the cervix expands to allow
the baby to pass through.
Uterus
The vagina, or birth canal, is a hollow,
muscular passage leading from the uterus to the outside of the body. Sperm enter a woman’s
body through the vagina.
The walls of the vagina are very elastic,
which allows it to expand dramatically
during childbirth.
Vagina
Vagina
Uterus
Ovary
Fallopian tube
Cervix
Front View
Female Reproductive System
Urethra
Vagina
Uterus
Ovary
Fallopian tube
Cervix
Urinary bladder
Side View
Female Reproductive System
Women usually produce only one mature egg cell each month during a process called the menstrual cycle
.
During the menstrual cycle, an ovary releases a mature egg.

The egg travels to the uterus.

If the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining is shed and a new cycle begins.

The Menstrual Cycle
On average, a woman’s menstrual cycle lasts 28 days.

Factors such as diet, stress, exercise, and weight gain or loss also affect the menstrual cycle.

The menstrual cycle may be irregular at times, especially during puberty.

During menopause, the ovaries slow down their hormone production and no longer release mature eggs.
Factors Affecting the Menstrual Cycle
The Menstrual Cycle
Days 23–28 The unfertilized egg enters the uterus.
Days 16–22 The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus, and the uterine lining continues to thicken.
Days 14–15 The ovary releases the mature egg during ovulation.
Days 5–13 An egg matures in one of the ovaries, and the uterine lining starts to thicken.
Days 1–4 The uterine lining is shed during menstruation.
Maturing Egg
Egg
Egg
Days 23–28 The unfertilized egg enters the uterus.
Days 16–22 The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the uterus, and the uterine lining continues to thicken.
Days 14–15 The ovary releases the mature egg during ovulation.
Days 5–13 An egg matures in one of the ovaries, and the uterine lining starts to thicken.
Days 1–4 The uterine lining is shed during menstruation.
During the first half of the cycle, an egg matures inside one of the ovaries.

At about the middle of the cycle ovulation occurs.

If the egg has not been fertilized by the time it reaches the uterus, the uterine lining breaks down.

The blood and tissue of the thickened lining pass out of the body through the vagina in a process called menstruation.
Stages of Menstrual Cycle
Cramps are caused by contractions of the uterus.

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is marked by nervous tension, mood swings, headaches, bloating, and irritability.

The dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs before menstruation begins may cause PMS.
Menstrual Discomfort
This syndrome is caused by a bacterial infection.
Symptoms of toxic shock syndrome include
A sudden high fever
A rash
Vomiting
Diarrhea
dizziness
To decrease the risk of toxic shock syndrome, women should use tampons with the lowest possible absorbency for their needs and change tampons often.
Toxic Shock Syndrome
Caring for the female reproductive system involves
Cleanliness
Sexual abstinence
Prompt treatment for infections
Self-exams
Regular medial checkups
Keeping Healthy
One important health habit is cleanliness,
including daily washing of the external vaginal area.
Cleanliness is especially important during menstruation, as is the regular changing of sanitary pads or tampons.
Cleanliness
Many women experience vaginitis, a vaginal infection caused by yeast, bacteria, or other microorganisms.
Symptoms include
A thick discharge
Odors
Vaginal itching
A burning sensation during urination
Prompt Treatment for Infections
Symptoms of vaginitis, sores on the genitals, or any unusual pain in the abdomen require a medical exam.

A woman should consult a doctor
if she notices heavier bleeding than normal during menstruation
if her periods stop completely
if she notices bleeding at times between her regular periods

For the early detection of breast cancer, all women, including teens, should perform a monthly breast self-examination.
Self Exams
In a Pap smear, a sample of cells is taken from the cervix and examined under a microscope.

A mammogram is an X-ray of the breast that can help detect breast cancer.
Ovarian cysts Ovarian cysts are growths on the ovary.

Endometriosis This is a condition in which tissue from the lining of the uterus—the endometrium—grows outside the uterus, in the pelvic cavity.

Infertility Causes of infertility in women include blocked fallopian tubes and problems with ovulation.
Medical Checkups
Wall Wisher
What are the three major functions of the female reproductive system?
A woman is born with about one to two million immature eggs, or follicles, in her ovaries.
When a woman reaches puberty and starts to menstruate, only about 400,000 follicles remain. With each menstrual cycle, a thousand follicles are lost and only one lucky little follicle will actually mature into an ovum (egg), which is released into the fallopian tube, kicking off ovulation.
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