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# Deductive/Indeductive Reasoning/Sherlock Holmes

What is the difference bewteen deductive and Inductive reasoning? And how are they used?
by

## Brandon Grant

on 13 September 2013

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#### Transcript of Deductive/Indeductive Reasoning/Sherlock Holmes

What is Deductive Reasoning?
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic or logical deduction or, informally, "top-down" logic, is the process of reasoning from one or more general statements to reach a logically conclusion.
An Example of an Deductive Argument
1.All men are mortal.
2.Aristotle is a man.
3.Therefore, Aristotle is mortal
What is Inductive Reasoning?
Inductive reasoning, also known as induction or informally "bottom-up" logic,is a kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples.
An Example of an Inductive Argument
Jack and John are guitarists and they feel pain in their fingers after playing 2 hours straight.

Jill is also a guitarist and she feels the same pain after playing the guitar for 2 hours.
Therefore, guitarists feel pain in their fingers after playing 2 hours straight.
What is the difference between Deductive and Inductive Reasoning?
The biggest difference between the two, is that Deductive Arguments take generalized statements and concludes in a specific conclusion. Unlike it's counterpart Inductive Arguments begins with specific facts and ends in a generalized conclusion.
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
How are these methods used in everyday life?
Sherlock Holmes and how he is reliant to Deductive Reasoning.
In the stories of Sherlock Holmes, written by Arthur Conan Doyle. The famous detective uses forms of deductive reasoning to makes sense of certain events that may of confused many others at that time.
Arthur Conan Doyle
Deductive reasoning on the other hand is used more for Scientific study and research.
How Deductive Reasoning Differs from Logic
Deductive reasoning should be distinguished from logic. Deductive reasoning is a psychological process. In contrast, logic does not describe a psychological process. Logic is the abstract theory of the logical consequence relation, the relation that specifies what follows from what.
Human reasoning makes use of mental representations that resemble the sentences of natural language. In deductive reasoning, reasoners manipulate these representations by applying syntactic rules of inference that
resemble the rules of logic.
More Mental Aspects
Deductive arguments are evaluated in terms of their validity and soundness. It is possible to have a deductive argument that is logically valid but is not sound. Trick arguments are based off of this. An argument is valid if it is impossible for its premises to be true while its conclusion is false. In other words, the conclusion must be true if the premises, whatever they may be, are valid. An argument can be valid even though the premises are false.
An Example of This:
1.Everyone who eats carrots is a quarterback.
2.John eats carrots.
3.Therefore, John is a quarterback.
Arguments Validity
How To Learn Deductive Reasoning
Work Cited
www.brown.edu/Departments/Philosophy/.../DeductiveReasoning.pdf
http://www.iep.utm.edu/ded-ind/
http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/dedind.php
Two very distinct and opposing instructional approaches are inductive and deductive. Both approaches can offer certain advantages, but the biggest difference is the role of the teacher. In a deductive classroom, the teacher conducts lessons by introducing and explaining concepts to students, and then expecting students to complete tasks to practice the concepts; this approach is very teacher-centered. Conversely, inductive instruction is a much more student-centered approach and makes use of a strategy known as ‘noticing’.
If Larry is sick, then he will be absent from school.
If Larry is absent, then he will miss his classwork.
If Larry is sick, then he will miss his classwork.
Please point out which is the
Observation
Hypothesis
Confirmation
Good Job!
Deductive Reasoning if used by Crime Scene Investigators to deduce time of death, murder weapon, time of death, etc when there is a lack of evidence.
Deductive Reasoning can also be used in geometry
Thanks for watching
Batman
+
Holmes
=
Winning

Simply Stated - Deduction is Reasoning Backwards

"In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backwards. That is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much. In the every-day affairs of life it is more useful to reason forwards, and so the other comes to be neglected. There are fifty who can reason synthetically for one who can reason analytically...Let me see if I can make it clearer. Most people, if you describe a train of events to them, will tell you what the result would be. They can put those events together in their minds, and argue from them that something will come to pass. There are few people, however, who, if you told them a result, would be able to evolve from their own inner consciousness what the steps were which led up to that result. This power is what I mean when I talk of reasoning backwards, or analytically."

Sherlock Holmes Quote

-A Study in Scarlet
Full transcript