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Filipino Grievances Against Governor Wood
Transcript of Filipino Grievances Against Governor Wood
Relevance to Present Time
Analysis of Document
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Issuance of Executive Order No. 37
Wood attempted to nullify laws creating the Board of Control and assumed functions of that body.
Gravity of last step is more evident when we recall the series of usurpation committed by him.
Worked at the University of the Philippines, University of Santo Tomas, San Beda College, University of Manila, Far Eastern University, and University of Hawaii.
Became the first Professor emeritus of History at the Far Eastern University after he retired in 1964.
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The document is an eyewitness account which serves as enough proof to show the real happenings and events during those time
It showed that the Philippines was under (indirectly) the US and that we were fooled by false promises.
It serves as a reminder that we must learn to stand in our own feet and be independent. We must learn to not easily trust people because we do not know their real intentions.
Studied in the University of the Philippines (M.A. 1931) and University of Santo Tomas (B.A. and PhD of Philosophy, 1934)
Background of the Author
Filipino historian, author, politician from town of Pagsanjan, Laguna
Born: May 25, 1907
Died: October 31, 1988
Contribution to the Grand Scheme of Philippine History
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Filipino Grievances Against Governor Wood
The document as a form of protest (Zaide writes for the constitutional representatives of the Filipino people)
The document served as an impeachment request for Governor Wood
The document was approved by the Commission on Independence on November 17, 1926 (Appointed: October 14, 1921 until August 7, 1927)
A year after this document was approved, Governor Leonard Wood died due to surgery failure.
Gregorio Zaide (Gregy)
He was also one of the founders of the International Association of Historians of Asia (IAHA), and president of the Philippine Historical Association for the 3 terms. As a politician, he served as the mayor of his hometown of Pagsagjan from 1971 to 1975.
Major-General Leonard Wood arrived in the Philippine islands in 1903 after his services in Cuba.
He was appointed governor of the Mero Province, comprising the southern islands and Mindanao.
Aside from being the head of the civil government, he is also responsible for five districts, and the commanding general of the troops in the department of Mindanao and Sulu as well.
An interview done by
Robert Low Bacon
General Wood was asked what he thinks would happen if he left
His response was “Strife, disorder, bloodshed. They might not come instantly, but they would come soon. Moros, whom we have disarmed and who want us to stay and protect them, and Christian Filipinos would fight. Industry, trade, and credit would be ruined, with the inevitable concomitants of idleness, hunger, and anarchy.”
The interview was quite interesting since what he's saying is contradicting to what he's actually doing.
Approved by the Commission on Independence on November 17, 1926
"Emblem of Freedom"
"Symbol of Altruism"
Philippines and America
Promised that our country would be conserved and developed for the benefit of people.
Filipinos were patient & diligent to the task of meeting the conditions given to them because they TRUST in the Americans.
20 yrs of civil government -mutual understanding & loyal cooperation
Purpose: Train the country the art of self-government
Aim: Our Good
The President of the USA
Advised Congress of America to fulfill their promise since the goal has been reached (loyalty from Philippines).
Major-General Leonard Wood was sent to Philippines as Governor-General.
Cognizant of General Wood's participation in the liberation of Cuba, Filipinos expected that spirit of cooperation would be maintained.
Political emancipation would be complete.
There was a train of usurpation & arbitrary acts
Resulted in curtailment of our autonomy & destruction of our constitutional system
Reversal of America's Philippine Policy
1. He has refused his assent to laws which were the most wholesome & necessary heads of department.
2. He has set at naught both the legal authority and responsibility for the Philippine heads of departments.
3. He has substituted his constitutional advisers for a group of military attaches without legal standing in the government and not responsible to the people.
4. He has reversed the policy of Filipinizing the service of the government by appointing Americans even when Filipinos of proven capacity were available.
5. He has obstructed the carrying out of national economic policies duty adopted by the Legislature, merely because they are in conflict with his personal views.
6. He has
rendered merely perfunctory
the power of the Legislature to pass the
annual appropriation law
by reviving items in the law of the preceding year, after vetoing the corresponding items of the current appropriation act, in the flagrant violation for
7. He has made appointments to positions and authorized the payment of salaries therefor after having vetoed the appropriations of such salaries.
8. He has used certain public funds to grant additional compensation to public officials in clear violation law.
9. He has arrogated unto himself the right of exercising the powers granted by law to the
after abolishing said board on the ground that its powers involved an unlawful delegation of legislative authority.
10. He has unduly interfered in the administration of justice.
11. He has refused to obtain the advice of the Senate in making appointments where such advice is required by the
12. He has refused to submit the Senate appointment for vacancies occurring during the recess of the Legislature in contravention of the Organic Act.
13. He has continued in office nominees whose appointments had been rejected by the Senate.
14. He has usurped legislative powers by imposing conditions on legislative measures approved by him.
15. He has, in the administration of affairs in Mindanao, brought about a condition which has given rise to discord and dissension between certain groups of Christian and Mohammedan Filipinos.
16. He has by his policies created strained relations between resident Americans and Filipinos.
17. He has endeavored, on the pretext of getting the government out of business, to dispose of all the companies capitalized by the government worth many millions of the people's money to powerful America interests.
18. He has sanctioned the campaign of insidious propaganda in the United States against Filipino people and their aspirations.
19. He has attempted to close the Philippine National Bank so necessary to the economic development of the country.
20. He has adopted the practice of intervening in, and controlling directly, to its minute details, the affairs of the Philippine Government both insular and local, in violation of self-government.
21. He has insistently sought the amendment of our laws approved by the Congress of the United Stated, which amendment would open up the resources of our country to exploitation by predatory interests.
Wood promulgated the Order, declaring that the laws creating & defining powers of B.O.C.
He also announced his purpose to exercise solely the powers & duties developing.
The order is purported to be from the opinion of the Judge Advocate General of the US Army and conformatory opinion of the Acting Advocate General on November 7.
However, the publication was moved to November 10, after Legislature had adjourned.
"We, the constitutional representatives of the Filipino people...do hereby, in our behalf and in the name of the Filipino people, solemnly and publicly make known our most protest against the arbitrary acts and usurpations of the present Governor-General of the Philippine Islands, particularly against Executive Order No. 37."
“We appeal to the judgment and conscience of the American people in justification of our stand and for the vindication of our rights.”
The long term effects of Governor Wood’s abusive doings disposal of all companies benefited by the government worth many millions of the people’s money to American interests attempted to close the PNB which is important to the economic development of the country.
The violation of self-government Created a divide between the Christian and the Mohammedan Filipinos.
The laws defining powers of B.O.C. were neither repealed by Legislature, annulled by Congress, nor declared unconstitutional by the courts.
"In the face of this critical situation, we, the constitutional representatives of the Filipino people, met to deliberate upon the present difficulties existing in the Government of the Philippine Islands and to determine how best to preserve the supremacy and majesty of the laws and to safeguard the right and liberties of our people, having faith in the sense of justice of the people of the United States and inspired by her patriotic example in the early days of her history, do hereby, in our behalf and in the name of the Filipino people, solemnly and publicly make known our most
vigorous protest against the arbitrary acts and usurpations of the present Governor-General
of the Philippine Islands, particularly against Executive Order No. 37."
As far as majority of the Filipinos, they are not aware of who Governor Wood is.
People keep on generalizing the idea that the whole American nation deceived us.
We succumb to forms of oppression that a higher power has over us!