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aly kahn

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of nigeria

a struggle for unity II. Nigeria: Roots and Reasons for Colonization A. Britain colonizes Nigeria in 1914
B. Reasons for colonization
1. Natural resources: palm oil, rubber, cocoa
2. Location: proximity to coast
3. Power were elite social classes created, destroyed?
what were imperialist's impact on different ethnic, religious groups I. Nigeria: Precolonization A. No national economy
1. Not industrialized
B. No federal government
1. Many small tribes with independent leadership A. Leaders of Nationalist Movement
1. Herbert Macauley (1864-1945)
a. Leader in Nationalism movement in Nigeria
b. Highly educated in England
c. Head of Nigerian National Democratic party
d. Opposed increased British control in Nigeria

B. Nnamidi Azikiwe (1904-1996)
1. Returns from university in the U.S. and Britain, emphasizes the African struggle against European colonialism.
2.Leader of the NCNC, the National Convention of Nigerian Citizens, because of his leadership ability
a. His use of newspapers argued for the nationalist cause. IX. Nigeria: A free country, initial government A. Nigeria becomes a federation
1. Relatively weak federal government
2. Ethnic groups each have a great deal
of self government and independence
3. Azikiwe becomes first president of Nigeria XI. Free Nigeria:
Political unrest Ethnic differences and social instability trigger series of coups... XII. Free Nigeria:
Coup 1 A. Causes of first coup
1. Disputed federal census:1963
2. Disputed elections:1964
3. Disputed regional elections in west: 1965
B. First coup: 1966
1. Igbo army officers revolt (led by Chukwuma "Kaduna" Nzeogwu)
a. Coup is ethnically motivated
b. Kills numerous northern Nigerian political leaders
C. Coup fails XIII. Free Nigeria:
Coup 2 A. Another coup by Igbos
1. Led by general Johnson Umunnakwe Aguiyi-Ironsi
B. Impacts of Coup
1. Destroys federal government
2. Makes a unitary system of government
3. Arrests but never tries leaders of first coup XIV. Free Nigeria: Coup 3
Revenge Coup A. Led by (North) officer Aguiyi-Ironsi while in West
1. Kills Igbo prime minister
2. 55 thousand Igbos dead
3. Thousands were maimed
4. Estimated 2 million Igbos fled to other parts of Nigeria XV. Impact of political unrest:
Biafran Civil War A. How it started
1. Biafra is a part of Nigeria (Eastern)
2. People there are fed up with political unrest
3. Ojukwu leads independence movement
4. Nigerian federal government declares war against Biafra A. Fought almost entirely in southeastern Nigeria
B. Biafra is weaker than Nigerian government
C. Biafran forces frequently need to retreat
D. Biafran people are isolated from the rest of the country
1. Blockaded by sea
2. Biafrans are unable to receive food and supplies
E. Biafran forces eventually surrender
A. Extreme loss of life
1. Death of nearly 1 million unarmed citizens
2. Loss of property
3. Bad living conditions in Biafra
4. Death, starvation, displacement of Igbos
5. Agricultural system destroyed
6. According to Red Cross: 14 thousand people died each day in Biafra
7. 1970-Owerri, Biafran stronghold falls=collapse of resistance
8. Ojukwu flees to Ivory Coast
9. Biafran military commander surrenders
10. Major loss of life among Igbos
11. Many people die from malnutrition XVII. Biafran War: Results A. Multitude of political regimes
1. Second Republic: 1977
2. New constitution
3. Elections for president and other political positions
4. Alhaji Shehu Shagari becomes president
5. Supreme Military Council rule: 1983
a. Overthrows republic, led by Muhammadu Buhari
6. Third Republic
a. Led by Ibrahim Babangida
b. Overthrows government
c. Babangida brings back civilian rule in 1993 XX. Nigeria: Decline of political instability A. Democratic Nigeria: 1999
1. Led by Olusegun Obasanjo, became president
2. More governmental transparency, increased freedom XXI. Nigeria: Today XXIII. Nigeria: Today (cont'd) XXII. In Summary: Modern
Nigeria and Britain - VII. Nigeria: Independence movement XVI. Independent Nigeria:
Ongoing Social unrest XVI. Free Nigeria: Biafran War (Cont'd) I. Precolonization Cont. A. Many disunited ethnic/religious groups (250+)
1. These groups lived in relative peace
a. Each small and independent of the others
B. The three major ethnic groups made up 65% of Nigeria:
1. Hausa/Fulani in the North
a. Fulani Empire expanded even into regions of Sierra Leone at its height
b. The Kanem-Bornu Empire, also in the North, conquered around Lake Chad
2. Igbo in the South/Southeast
a. Lived in independent, democratic states
3.Yoruba in the west III. Great Britain’s
Style of Colonial Government:
Indirect Rule A. Britain often implemented indirect rule on its colonies
1. Indirect rule was effective and inexpensive
2. Indirect rule’s exploitation of African leaders and then those leader’s exploitation of their fellow people led to rivalries and ultimately divided, weak states
3. The British customarily picked one ethnic conservative minority to side with against the rest of the nation
a. In Nigeria, the Fulani in the North were favored IV. Indirect Rule In
Northern Nigeria A. British use indirect rule in North with Fulani
1. Fulani’s form of leadership
a. Sokoto caliphate (Islamic)
b. Emirship
B. Indirect rule imposed within Nigerian emirship makes Fulani emirs corrupt
1. Non-Fulanis and non-Muslims often riot in protest
2. Indirect rule here forces many independent and different ethnic groups together
a. A lack of resources in the region and ethnic rivalries in North lead to high tensions
3. Minorities often massacred
a. These genocides continue to modern day V. British Rule of Major Ethnic Groups A. British attempt indirect rule with Igbos in South and East
1. Does not work within Igbo’s democratic society
B. Rivalries between the Igbo, Hausa/Fulani, and Yoruba start during British reign
1. British rule forces different and independent groups together
2. This creates tension
C. Political parties formed around ethnic groups
1. Igbo form National Convention of Nigerian Citizens
2. Yoruba forms Action Group
3. Hausa/Fulani forms Northern Peoples Congress
D. The creation of these political parties favored British interests
1. These political parties have opposite values
a. These rivalries prevent people from nationalistic uprisings for independence
2. Britain could keep using Nigeria's resources A. Political, social and ethnic unrest still continues today
1. Ethnic groups
a. Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% indigenous religion
2. People
a. 17th in world for AIDS/HIV; as of 2009 3.6% of adults are infected
b.Kids spend an average of 9 years in school- 10 for boys, 8 for girls
c.Universal suffrage for those 18 and older
3. Law
a.Laws are mix of English common law, Islamic law, and traditional laws
4. Economy
a.Oil gives Nigeria 95% of foreign exchange earnings
b. Exports include petroleum, petroleum products, coca, rubber
B. Reforms
1. Recently- in 2008- modern day Nigeria started economic reforms in order to:
a. Solve disputes over oil industry profits
b. Fix their banking system.
2. Reform is slow due to lack of nationwide infrastructure and implementation Formally called the Federal Republic of Nigeria XXII. Nigeria and Great Britain
Infant Mortality:
Nigeria- 74.36 deaths for every 1,000 live births
Britain- 4.56 deaths for every 1,000 live births
Literacy rate:
Nigeria- 61.3%
Britain- 99%
GDP per capita:
Nigeria is $2600 as of 2011, making them #178 worldwide
Britain is $36500 as of 2011 making them #32 worldwide
Nigeria- 21%
Britain- 8.1%
Life expectancy at birth:
Nigeria- 52.05 years , making them 212nd in the world
Britain- 80.17 years making them 30th in the world
Below poverty line:
Nigeria- 70% live below
Britain- 15.1% live below X. Free Nigeria: Social conflict A. Biggest Problem in Nigeria post colonization
1. Under British rule, Ethnic groups were displaced and crammed together: sparks conflict (May 30, 1967-Jan 12 1970) 1. "The fight for liberty has just begun in Africa. Only those who are prepared to face odds with a will that knows no defeat having right as their armor and the sword of truth as their weapon--must follow the thorny road."
-Azikiwe Azikiwe, photo taken in 1957. an educated nationalist who played a significant role in advocating Nigerian Independence. Linguistic Groups Map As demonstrated in this map, there are many different groups of people in Nigeria--causing conflict. Cornered in Southeastern Nigeria, the Biafran's were cut off from food and supplies, resulting in mass death. Map of Biafra Religion in Nigeria The impact of imperialism: a large group of Nigerians today are christian. Starving Children in Biafra The protruding bellies and thin legs on these children are all signs of malnutrition. These Biafran children are just a few of the many who suffered from hunger in Nigeria due to the Biafran Civil War and poverty. NIGERIA: IMPERIALISM, DISUNITY AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY VIII. Awolowo, Chief Obafemi(1909-1087)
A. Wrote "Path to Nigerian Freedom" to criticize British's indirect administration and called for self-government.
B. Formed the Action Group in 1950, a nationalist organization called for an end of British rule.

C. became the president of the Action Group

D. As the first Premier of the Western Region, he held the regional portfolios of finance, economic plannings. Date of Independence
The British found it difficult to keep control of their colony , so Nigeria gained its independence on October 1, 1960. VI. The Road to Independence Ethnic tensions in Nigeria are on the rise. Great Britain cannot stay in power for much longer.... A. Nigerians demanded more political representations.

B. The Nigerian Youth Movement, a frontline nationalist organization, was established, and more people began to be involved in protesting British rule

C. Leaders rose political awareness through newspapers and public speeches, promoting nationalism and challenging the colonial rule.

D. The Action Group supported by the Yoruba of the west, and the National Convention of Nigerian Citizens, supported by the Igbo from the Southeast, these two parties emerged to challenge the British.

E. In 1957, delegates met in a conference held in London to prepare for the independence for Nigeria.

f. Modern Day Igbo Modern day Igbo celebrating a wedding. The ethnic clashes and rivalries caused by Great Britain's indirect rule have continued into the present day. This map shows the date when Nigeria gained its independence, which is October 1, 1960. VIII. Cont. A. Modern day impacts of Nigeria's colonization
1. 40% of Nigeria is Christian
2. Legal system includes English common law
3. Ethnic rivalries caused by indirect rule have lasted
a. In recent past genocides have continued B. Modern day impacts on Britain
1. Imports fuel
a. Fuel- specifically petroleum- are large Nigerian exports Nigeria
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