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The New Republic

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Jordan Phelps

on 10 April 2015

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Transcript of The New Republic

The New Republic
Unit 3
1789 - 1850
Washington's
Presidency

Adams & France
Jefferson & Expansion
The War of 1812
President Washington
Elected first president in 1789
Served in New York (Nation's Capital at the time)
Vice President-
John Adams
-Second Place in Votes became Vice President Back then
Many firsts occurred during Washington's Presidency
-First Judicial Appointments
-First National Bank
-Presidents appoint Supreme Court Justices
-He chose
Jon Jay
as first

Chief Justice
, the head of the supreme court
-Country was still in debt
-
Alexander Hamilton
, Washington's
secretary of the Treasury
had the difficult task of solving financial troubles
Hamilton Established the first
National Bank
Created Big Debate between Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
is it Constitutional?
-First Federal Taxes
-First Political Parties
Debate Between Hamilton and Jefferson brought on the creation of
Political Parties
Federalist Party
-A. Hamilton
-"Loose" interpretation of Constitution
Democrat-Republican Party
-T. Jefferson & James Madison
- "Strict" Interpretation of Constitution
Jefferson thought it was
Unconstitutional
- not allowed by the constitution
- some powers are "implied"
- If it's not in the constitution, its NOT in the constitution!
Tariff
- tax on imported goods

Used to pay government expenses
Whiskey Rebellion
Tax on whiskey led to a revolt in Pittsburgh, PA
Washington sent 13,000 troops to stop the rebellion.
REbels backed down immediately.
First true test of government authority under the new constitution was a success.
- organized political group that seeks to influence, direct, or entirely perform government policy
Washington's Legacy
Accomplishments:
(1) ran the government effectively
(2) Improved the economy
(3) Avoided war
Precedents
- traditions established for the future
(1) Served only 2 terms (was not required back then)
(2) Avoided European affairs
During his Farewell Address He Warned of Political divisions created by political parties (he was right)
Why it Matters
The states ratified the constitution officially in 1789

This marked the beginning of the UNIted states as a republic under the newly formed government
from 1789-1838, the country faces many challenges in its infancy; both abroad and at home
John Adams
Elected 2nd President in 1796
Barely Defeated Democrat-Republican Thomas Jefferson
President & Vice President from different parties #powerstruggle
Ran for the Federalist Party
Britain and France, Still At it
war between the French and British was causing great difficulties for the United States on the high seas
France was angry the U.S. was staying neutral
#Rememberyorktown?
x,y,z Affair
Adams sent 3 diplomats to france to negotiate a treaty
France stopped trading with the U.s. and threatened war
The French refused to negotiate, unless the U.S. paid a Bribe #yeahright
"Millions for Defense, not one cent for tribute!"
The Americans refused to pay the bribe
x,y,z fever
News of the X,Y,Z affair created a "fever" for war in the U.s.
Members of the federalist party wanted to go to war with france
Adams did not want to
Alien and Sedition Acts
Federalists in congress were worried that French immigrants would move to the U.S. and spread dangerous ideas
Federalists Wanted to destroy their political enemies
French Immigrants & Democrat Republicans
Congress Passed the Alien and Sedition acts in 1798
Alien act
: must live in U.S. for 14 years before you could vote, & the president can deport any immigrant he felt was dangerous
Sedition act
: made it a crime to say or write negative things about the government #FreeSpeech?
Election of 1800
Despite avoiding war with france, Adams and the Federalists were very unpopular after creating the Alien and sedition acts
Democrat-republicans said it was unconstitutional, and used it against the Federalists in the Election of 1800
Adams was defeated by a landslide by both
Thomas Jefferson
(President)

and
Aaron Burr
(Vice President)

both Democrat-Republicans
Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson took office as the 3rd president in March 1801
First Democratic-Republican President
First president inaugurated in Washington, D.C.
His goals:
Limit the size of the government (reduce spending)
Reduce military
Release those imprisoned by the Sedition acts
Events during Jefferson's presidency
Marbury vs Madison
One of the most important supreme court cases ever (still to this day)
Chief Justice
John Marshall
becomes the first chief justice to declare a law unconstitutional
Established the principle of
Judicial review
: the authority of the supreme court to strike down unconstitutional laws
Louisiana Purchase
In 1803, the United States bought the
Louisiana Territory from france
The deal Doubled the size of the United States and made Jefferson very popular
Great bargain at $15 million, ( five cents per acre )
France Needed money to pay for war with England
Napoleon Bonaparte
of France negotiated the sale with Jefferson
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Jefferson commissioned an expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory
it would be the first american expedition to cross the entire continental U.S. to the Pacific ocean
33 men led by
Meriwether Lewis
and
William clark
set off from st. Louis to map the territory in 1804.
they reached the pacific off of the coast of oregon in 1806
http://www.history.com/topics/lewis-and-clark/videos/lewis--clark-expedition-charts-new-territory
Hypocrite?
Lewis and Clark
Search for a northwest passage to pacific
Map the territory
Document everything they saw
make friendly relations with native tribes

recieved help from
Sacajawea
: 16 year old native American guide
Goals:

War of 1812
aka- "the second war for independence"
United States Declares war on Great Britain in 1812
Reasons:
British were
impressing
american sailors over seas
americans believed british were trying to help native americans defend their territories
the U.S. wanted to take over canada
British forced american sailors to serve in the British navy.
War of 1812
Madison asks congress to declare war (first president to do so)
Naval battle-
USS Constitution
sinks the
HMS Guerriere
British invade Chesapeake Bay
The Chesapeake Campaign
British attack Washington, DC
White House Burnt to the ground
Part of capital building destroyed
President Madison forced to flee to the countryside
Battle of Baltimore
After Washington, DC the British move on to Baltimore, MD (Major Port city)
Bombarded
, or

fired upon, fort McHenry for 25 straight hours, but failed to weaken us forces
The battle was the inspiration for "the star spangled banner", by Francis Scott Key
treaty of ghent
By 1814, the war was a stalemate (neither side was winning)
Treaty of Ghent
was signed by british and americans, ending the war (nothing was gained or lost)
news had not made it back to the U.S. that the war was over
fighting continued
Battle of New Orleans
biggest battle of the war, happened 2 weeks after war ended
british soldiers attempted massive invasion of Louisiana through new Orleans
general Andrew Jackson scraped together a force of militia, free blacks, indians, and pirates.
jackson defeated the much larger british force
battle makes jackson famous & a national hero
jackson's force (333 casualties)
British force (2,460 casualties)
Jackson's victory
The era of good feelings to Jackson
Era of good feelings
James Monroe
- 5th president
Federalist party was no more
democratic-republicans controlled the government
era of good feelings-
short-lived era of peace for the U.S. under democrat-republicans
monroe doctrine
- U.s.' foreign policy after the war of 1812
-u.s. stays out of european affairs
-European countries must stay out of western hemisphere
- "no more colonizing the America's" (or we'll fight you!)
-colonizing was "Dangerous to peace and safety"

War with Indians
U.s. settlers began expanding into new lands
from 1816-1850: 12 states added to u.S. [Indiana - 1816 (19th)]
General Andrew Jackson was put in charge of securing lands in the south
U.S. went to multiple wars with several native american tribes in the southern states
-
creek war
- Mississippi, 1813
-
seminole wars
- florida, 3 from 1816-1842
Andrew Jackson and the Democrat party
Andrew Jackson retired from the military and went into politics in 1824
jackson started the
democrat party
and ran for president again in 1828
ran for president and lost to
john Q. Adams
(son of former president) in 1824

7th president
Jackson's presidency
despised political
patronage
- giving out jobs for favors
pushed for smaller government; tried to get rid of national bank
- Jackson's most notable (& controversial) contribution
Indian Removal Act
-gave native americans 2 options-
1) stay on land and be subject to government control (risk annihilation)

2) "voluntarily" move west to reserved Indian territories or
reservations
-easy choice
Trail of Tears
trail of tears
: forced relocation of Native American tribes east of mississippi river.
-16,000 cherokee relocated
wanted to extend the right to vote to ordinary people
Jackson wanted to make government more for the common person, and less controlled by the rich and powerful
Jacksonian Democracy
-began right after the Indian Removal Act of 1830
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole,
Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations
-nearly 6,000 died on the trail from georgia to oklahoma territory
Sectionalism
growing economies
as new lands were being settled, new industries emerged.
-began to thrive from new technological improvements brought on during the
industrial revolution
-machines and factories created jobs for european immigrants (german and irish)
-mass production made goods affordable and easy to find.
Northern states
growing economies
southern states
benefited from the newly acquired native american lands in the south
-railroads and steam boats made moving goods much easier
more plantations popped up
cotton was the major resource that drove the southern economy
sectionalism and division
-north and south were becoming more and more different
-south had an increasing demand for slave labor as their economy grew
-northern states viewed slavery as a thing of the past, and technology and industry the way of the future
-debates between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions began to increase in congress
Missouri compromise
Missouri compromise
(1820) : resolution passed by congress that regulated the expansion of slavery
- no states or territory above the
mason-dixon line
(36°30)′could have slavery -except missouri
-for every free state added, there must be a slave state added
abolitionist movement
missouri compromise did not solve the problem
anti-slavery or
Abolitionist

movement
was growing stronger
stories of freed slaves affected public opinion
"uncle tom's cabin"
- harriet beecher stowe's famous book about slavery
frederick douglass
,
william lloyd garrison
-
famous abolitionists
southern slave owners felt threatened
growing division
harriet tubman
- underground railroad
http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/andrew-jackson/videos/andrew-jackson-hero-of-new-orleans
The Monroe Doctrine
-tired of fighting with europe; wanted to focus on U.S. problems
-Spanish colonies were winning independence
-Mexico 1821
- These differences caused
Sectionalism:
- loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country; not the country as a whole
sectionalism & Division
"Bleeding Kansas"
Kansas-nebraska act (1854)
: made it legal for citizens of states to vote yes or no for slavery
-pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups began campaigning to get people to vote for their side
-eventually, violence broke out in kansas, & both sides began attacking one another
John Brown
Pottawatomie Massacre
: John Brown & a small group of abolitionists slaughtered pro-slavery group at Pottawatomie Creek, Kansas

John Brown
: A "Radical" abolitionist who attempted to rid slavery through violence
Harper's Ferry Raid (1859):
- Brown and his group attempted to raid the
federal arsenal
at Harper's Ferry, WV
-wanted to steal all of the weapons and give them to slaves
-hoped to start a slave uprising
- stopped by
Robert E. Lee
and the Army of Northern Virginia
-tried & hanged for treason
: hero or terrorist?

-Successfully captured the Arsenal
-but No slaves made it there
John Brown
John Brown
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