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Solids, liquids and Gases.

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maxim alekseev

on 23 December 2013

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Transcript of Solids, liquids and Gases.

Everything that is around us, that we can see and touch, all the things and the living beings too, all this is called with one name:
But the matter is not the same, it is divided in 3 groups.
Solids like a stone.
Liquids like the water.
Gases like the Oxygen.
Now we know that all the things are called matter, but from what are they made?
All the matter is made by molecules, that are the groups of some very little particles named atoms.
The atoms are the building blocks of all our world, and so for understand the difference between the states of matter.
Atomic bonds.
Characteristics and behavior:
Characteristics and behavior:
Characteristics and behavior:
States of matter.
Atoms bonds
Atomic construction
But the atoms are not the smallest, because they are made from:
Protons, that have a positive charge.
Neurones, that don't have a charge.
This 2 make the nucleus.
Electrons, that have a negative charge. They also make the energy.
Tis are rotating around the Nucleus.
x 2,000 times
x 20,000 times
All the together make the matter but they need bonds for make stay all together. This bonds are called
. This bonds are made using the electrons.
There are 2 types of atomic bonds:
Ionic bonds.
Covalent bonds.
This permit to the atoms be together and to the states of matter to be made.
Covalent bonds
Covalent bonds are made by sharing of the electrons between 2 or more atoms.
in this mode every electron pass through the new orbit, that if we have two atoms will be like number 8.
one good example of the covalent bond is the molecule of water.
Ionic bonds
Ionic bonds are made by the force of the magnetism between 2 atoms. This force is made by the giving 1 electron from one atom to one another. after this gift this 2 atoms are named ions and they have different magnetic charges, one of em is positive, and the other negative. For this they are us two magnets.
One good example of this bond is salt.
Particle theory
Now you all think about why I spoke to you about the atoms? The reason was that it is the base of the Particle theory.
This theory explain us the meaning of why there is difference between different matter.
This is because of the molecular construction. All depend from how near are the molecules and from how strong are the bonds between them.
Different states of matter have different characteristics and behavior. This can permit us to understand us their state. This characteristics are named properties.
There are different types of properties and now I will speck to you about them.
1-st property
Kinetic energy
One another difference between the states of matter is of how many Kinetic energy it can produce. It depends from the construction of the matter, because if the molecules are too near they can't really move and so they can't produce many Kinetic energy.
The heat energy is very important and useful if we are specking about the states of matter.
From this energy depends of what state of matter the object will be. And by adding and subtracting the heat energy we can control the state of matter of one object.
Solid is a state of matter when an object takes it's own shape and don't flow.
It always keep the same volume, and it cannot be compressed or poured.
Solids don't have many Kinetic energy.
Particle theory.
The molecules are all touching and fixed in a lattice, by some really strong bonds. For the motive of this strong bonds the solids have a fixed shape, and doesn't flow.
In this mode all the atoms are really close together and cannot b compressed any more.
The solids have only a little bit of Kinetic energy because the bonds of the molecules permit them only to vibrate.
Liquid is a state of matter when an object can't take it's own shape and or takes a form of it's container or flew.
It always keep the same volume, and cannot be squashed.
Liquids have a good amount of Kinetic energy.
Particle theory.
50% of molecules are still touching and fixed in a random pattern, by some weak bonds.
This permit to liquids to flow, because the molecules can move.
The weak bonds permit to the liquids to change shape, but the molecules are still near in half to don't permit to the molecules to be compressed.
The molecules can move easily in half for produce Kinetic energy in some good amounts.
Gas is a state of matter when an object don't take it's own shape and flew.
It can feel any closed container. Gas can be compressed and can easily change it's volume. It weight very little, and cannot often be seen, but sometimes we can feel it.
Gases produce a lot of Kinetic energy.
Particle theory.
The molecules don't touch and are not fixed in any pattern. For this motive there is no bond between them.
This permit them to move in any direction and to fill every free space and container.
The molecules spread out and this permit the gas to be compressed, and to change it's volume.
The molecules of the gas can move very quickly, and they collapse one with another, in this mode a lot of Kinetic energy is produced.
But there exist the 4-TH state of matter too, and it is called plasma.
It is often not a natural matter, and the only one one example of the natural plasma is the ball lighting.
The plasma is a very specific matter because the electrons are free to move, like the nucleus.
Changing state
But the matter don't stay all the time the same state. It can change, for example from liquid to gas or solid.
This succeed because of adding heat energy to the matter, or taking of this heat energy.
there are different types of changing:
Evaporation or boiling, liquid to gas;
Condensation, gas to liquid;
Sublimation, solid to gas;
Deposition, gas to solid;
Melting, solid to liquid,
Freezing, liquid to solid.
Adding heat energy
We can change the state of the matter by adding heat energy. In this mode we are going to pass the energy to the molecules, that are going to start to move faster and expand. In this mode they break their bonds and pass or from the solid to liquid, or from solid to gas, or from liquid to gas.
By adding the heat energy we also make increase the Kinetic energy of the matter.
Taking of heat energy
We can also change the state of matter by taking of the heat energy.
For this we make the matter colder, and all the molecules are moving slower. In this mode the molecules are coming together and the bonds between them are made one another time.
Like this we can pass from gas to liquid, or from gas to solid, or from liquid to solid.
In this mode we also make decrease the Kinetic energy of the matter.
Is a change of a matter from sold to liquid.
Is made by adding heat energy to the matter.
The molecules move quicker and destroy the bonds.
For example melting is when we go from ice to water.
Is the opposite of melting. When the matter pass from the liquid to the solid.
Is made by taking away energy. The molecules start to move slower and make the bonds between them.
For example freezing is when we go from water to ice.
Evaporation and boiling
When the liquid changes to gas. Is made by adding heat energy. The molecules are starting to move so quick in mode to broke the weak bones and escape like gas.
The evaporation is continuing always, when boiling only on high temperatures.
or example is like go from water to vapor.
Is the opposite of evaporating. When a gas transforms in a liquid. Is made by taking away heat energy. In this mode the molecules that hit the cold surface have less energy and they meet this other particles and make some bonds.
For example is like going from vapor to water.
When the solid transforms in the gas.
Is made by adding heat energy. The molecules are starting to move so fast that they are breaking all the bonds in mode that the molecules are free to move like gas.
For example is like than the dry ice go to vapor.
Is the opposite to sublimation. When the gas transforms to solid.
Is made by taking heat energy away. The molecules are starting to move slower and when they collapse they loose all their energy and make some strong bonds.
One example is the vapor that transforms in snow.
It seems tobe finished but not there are some activities here!
How are they small
What state of matter has more KE?
What is the positive charged part of atom?
How many are the types of bonds?
How many are the states of matter?
How can we change the state of the matter?
The smallest video in the world.
By M. Alekseev
Full transcript