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Focus on Phonemes
Transcript of Focus on Phonemes
d o g
p e rr o
ch i en Variation and Overlap 1) Ten ways to show the sound /ee/
-green -be -scene -radio -marine
-mean -key -lucky -field -receive
*Students need to be acquainted with the
different variations the sound is shown in Brain Research Cognitive Scientist Steven Pinker: PROBLEM 1) The alphabet is taught entirely from letter to sound, which destroys the logic of the alphabetic code. Our Writing System Represents 40+ Phonemes 2) People makes sounds, so "Show me the sound for d or g" 3) Code confusion happens when "en" is first taught as 2 sounds, but then later taught as a word family of -en. Not sure if it is one sound or 2 2) The overlap happens with letters like "a"
- apple /a/
- avocado /o/
(How do we show the letter "a" sound in banana?) 3) If a child can recognize a square and triangle, then the child can recognize O, W, and OW Diane McGuinness: "Children are wired for sound, but print is an optional accessory that must be painstakingly bolted on. This fact about human nature should be the starting point for any discussion of how to teach our children to read and write. "Cross-cultural comparisons reveal that the source of English-speaking children's difficulties in learning to read and spell is the English spelling system and the way it is taught."
"No one needs to be aware of phonemes unless they have to learn an alphabetic writing system. Anyone ... who has to learn an alphabetic writing system must be taught to unravel phonemes in words."
Writer of: Why Our Children Can't Read
& Early Reading Instruction Old Way: Letter to Sound
-Teach sounds of letters
-What sounds do "see-oh-double-you" make? New Way: Sound to Letter
-Teach sounds of the language and how these sounds are mapped to letters
-Let's map the sounds in
"COW": C - OW 2) Teaching the blends and rimes is like teaching "Half Language", to be avoided like " Whole Language" Failure to hear phonemes:
-frog fr og
-trip tr ip
-drum dr um
(more than 1 sound) Focusing on phonemes:
-frog = f r o g
-trip = t r i p
-drum= d r u m
-black= b l a ck MAPPING Strategy 1) Mapping: What a sound looks like Here is a MAP of California -C a l i f o r n i a
-Here is a MAP of the sounds in the word California. Saying the sound as we write it means we are MAPPING sounds.
-Students must learn the sound and how they are MAPPED to letters. OLD WAY: FROM LETTERS to SOUNDS:
Letter Names/Letters Make Sounds
When = YN
Word Families (1,260 Rimes)
Decodable Sight Words
play how see NEW WAY:FROM SOUNDS to LETTERS
NO Letter Names, Just sounds
When = WEN
No Consonant Blends, Just Phonemes
No Word Families (Rimes), Just Phonemes
No Decodable Sight Words
/p/-/l/-/ay/ /h/-/ow/ /s/-/ee/ Conquering code confusion: What Works Stanovich(2000) remind us that: "numerous training studies have demonstrated that: preschool and kindergarten children exposed to programs designed to facilitate phonological awareness became better readers" McGuniness et al.(1996) credit the positive results of their study to: teaching the entire alphabetic code in an explicit, sequential manner that is logical to the student.
Bases on their clinical experience, they cite code confusion as the major cause of reading problems for most children. Wright and Mullen (2006) also suggest that the: structure teaching of skills in the Phono-Graphix program "proves less confusing to students than the information overload that can occur with the other approaches" (pg.82) Adaptive Activities Most materials can be adapted to focus on phonemes. A worksheet featuring a blend simply allows students to practice two sounds instead of one. Similarly, a worksheet featuring a word family is an opportunity to practice 2 sounds found at the end of many words. For each activity, emphasize MAPPING SOUNDS. FOR EXAMPLE:
-Take a decodable text
-Put words with the target sound on flash cards.
-Play games like sound ball or sort words for spelling.
-Dictate words using dry erase boards and have students map sounds.
-MAP, MAP, MAP during Word Work