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Transcript of WWII
December 7, 1941 - Japan attacked Pearl Harbor
December 8, 1941 - The US declared war on Japan
December 10, 1941 - Guam fell to Japan
December 11-13, 1941 - Germany and it's allies declared war on the US
December 22, 1941 - Japan invaded the Philippines
December 23, 1941 - Wake Island fell to Japan
The US Ends Neutrality
January 20, 1942
The Wannsee Conference took place, which officially established the "Final Solution" which would kill an estimated 11 million Jews.
February 19, 1942
President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which allowed the Japanese-Americans to be sent to internment camps
Battle of Singapore
Singapore became a British military base in 1938
After many allied defeats, including a defeat in Malaya, which was North of Singapore, the Japanese headed toward Singapore
The Japanese attacked Singapore on February 15, 1942, running the British out
This is known as possibly the worst British defeat of WWII
Allied defeat in Burma
Beginning on December 14, 1941 the Japanese attacked the allies in Burma
The Japanese eventually ran the British troops out of Burma into India on May 26, 1942
The Bataan Death March
After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, they invaded the Philippines
After three months of trying to fight off the Japanese with little support, the 75,000 US-Filipino troops surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942
They were split into groups of 100 and forced to march about 65 miles across the peninsula
Thousands lost their lives due to the cruel treatment of their captors, lack of water, and lack of food
Those who could not walk were killed, others were killed without reason at all
Those who survived the death march were taken to POW camps and brutalized
General Masaharu Homma was the Japanese commander in charge in the Philippines and was later tried and convicted for the actions during the Bataan Death March. He was executed by firing squad in 1946.
The Doolittle Raid
After Pearl Harbor, President Roosevelt made contact with military commanders and wanted a way to "fire back" at the Japanese and help boost America's morale
They couldn't figure out how to logically fly any planes that far of a distance because they didn't have any bases close enough
They finally proposed a plan that would require B-25 Mitchell Bombers with a 2,000lb bomb load to take off from an aircraft carrier and fly to the target (Honshu Island in Japan) and then land in China
It was called the Doolittle Raid because Lieutenant Colonel Jimmy Doolittle was put in charge of the mission
In order to complete the mission, Doolittle put together 24 flight crews that would fly the 24 bombers on the mission - only 16 went
They were sent to train for "short field takeoffs" and were trained by a naval aviator from Pensacola, Lt. Henry Miller.
On April 18, 1942 the ship carrying the bombers was spotted about 650 miles off the coast of Japan. The ship was destroyed by gun fire.
Doolittle made the call to start the raid 12 hours before originally planned
All 16 aircraft made it off the ship in about one hour and headed for Japan
They successfully bombed their targets in Japan, but because they took off 150 miles away from their intended take-off spot they ran low on fuel and could not make it to their planned landing base in China
They had the option to bail out over China or crash land along the Chinese coast
15 chose to crash land, while one chose to land in Russia
Out of the 16, the ones who landed in Russia were put in camps until they escaped in 1943, 3 were killed while trying to land in China, 8 were captured by the Japanese (3 of those were executed), and the rest landed safely and made it out without being captured due to the help of chinese civilians
Battle of Coral Sea
The Japanese were trying to conquer the Coral Sea, which would give them easier access to Australia (which was an Allied power)
The US was able to intercept the Japanese plans and break the code. They sent air craft carriers and other ships to the Coral Sea
The Japanese had aircraft carriers and ships as well
The US and Japanese forces traded air strikes, and both lost a ship and suffered damage, but the Japanese turned away making it an Allied victory.
This battle would later have an important impact on the Battle of Midway, as Japan a till suffering from their losses at the Coral Sea
Battle of Midway
Japan's plan from the beginning of the war was to eliminate the United States' influence in the Pacific by eliminating their pacific fleet
In May 1942, the US intercept Japanese plans to attack Midway and broke the codes
Yamamoto's plan was to quickly knock down Midway's defenses and then to follow up with an invasion of the two small islands and establish a Japanese air base there. He expected the U.S. carriers to come out and fight and that's when he would destroy the fleet
Admiral Nimitz (US - came up with the idea of island hopping) had to make final decisions about where to position his forces without knowing Japan's final plans
American scouts spotted the Japanese off the coast on June 4, 1942
The US caught the Japanese as they were refueling their planes and rearming
The US sunk 4 of the Japanese fleet-carriers (carrying 322 aircraft and 5,000 sailors)
The US lost about 147 aircraft and 300 sailors
The allies won and this was a huge victory and turning point for the allies in WWII.
Battle of Stalingrad
In July 1942, the Germans invaded Soviet Union trying to take over Stalingrad. They thought if they conquered this, that would mean an easier victory over the Soviet Union
The Germans made their way into Stalingrad in September of 1942. They were able to push through a little bit, with much resistance from the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union had built up their defense in preparation, though, and the Germans did not find this to be an easy task.
There was fighting in the streets of Stalingrad. Many lives were lost, buildings blown to pieces, and factories severely damaged.
In mid-November, the Germans were running low on reinforcements and supplies. They were not allowed to retreat. They were ordered by Hitler to stand their ground no matter what.
They ended up surrendering the rest of their army (about 91,000 men) on February 2, 1943 after losing about 150,000 men.
This was a huge victory for the Soviet Union.
The Allies attacked the Axis powers in North Africa at El Alamein in Egypt and prevented Germany from capturing the Suez Canal (Began October 23, 1942 and ended at the beginning of November).
The Axis forces were under the command of Erwin Rommel known as the Desert Fox.
The allied powers had British, Australians, New Zealanders, Indians, and South Africans, together with some French and Greek units fighting on their side.
The allies had more reinforcements and air superiority over the axis powers. They defeated the axis powers and headed toward Tunisia.
There was a group in North Africa called the French Vichy Regime that was controlling the areas of Algeria and Morocco (and other areas in North Africa). This group was formed after Germany took over France. France was split down the middle, with one side being under the control of the Germans, and the other side was controlled by the French. The side that was controlled by the french was actually run by a man named Marshal Philippe Pétain who not only cooperated with, but helped the Germans.
November 8, 1942 the allies, under the leadership of Dwight D. Eisenhower, launched an operation to land in Algeria and Morocco. The landing was code-named "Torch."
This operation was being launched to try to defeat the French Vichy Regime and get the axis powers out of North Africa. The allies were then planning to push their way from North Africa into Sicily and then com through the South part of Europe to defeat the axis powers. They also wanted to clear the Mediterranean Sea of Axis ships so the Allied ships could use the area.
The allies thought they would be able to invade these North African areas and gain the cooperation of the French.
They landed in Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers. There was some French resistance, but the allies were able to get them to cooperate within a few days and infiltrate the areas without many allied deaths.
American General George Patton closed in on Commander Rommel (German) and drove the Germans out of North Africa in May of 1943. Rommel and his troops retreated to Tunisia.
When looking at the allied invasion of North Africa, we said that the allies plan was to invade Sicily. In order to keep the axis powers from finding out their plan, they came up with a scheme to distract them and throw them off course.
In April 1943, two British soldiers came up with scheme. They knew there was a German spy by the name of Adolf Clauss who was known to be off the coast of Spain.
They retrieved a dead body from a London coroner and gave him a false identity William Martin, a major in the Royal marines. They then created all kinds of fake "wallet litter" such as pictures, letters, receipts, bills, and pictures. They also gave him a fiance and a father.
The most important thing, though, was the briefcase they attached to him that had several documents in it written from one general to another about the allies plans to attack the axis powers through Greece. Yes, there were also
They then had a submarine put the body in the ocean and let it float toward the coast Spain.
Their plan worked! The German spy found the body and reported it to the Germans. The Germans moved the majority of their troops to Greece.
This is where the majority of the axis powers were when the allied powers invaded Sicily on July 10, 1943 with an overwhelming military of 160,000 men.
On September 3, 1943 the allies landed at the "toe" of Italy.
The Italian government secretly discussed and agreed to the terms of surrender and Mussolini was overthrown.
Part of the terms of surrender was that the Italians would help the allies get the Germans out of Italy.
The Germans rescued Mussolini from a prison later that month and Hitler gave him the position as the leader of a German-occupied area in Italy.
Rome is Liberated!
June 5, 1944 the allies had finally fought their way through the outskirts of the city of Rome.
The Germans were ordered to withdraw after the allied army proved too much for them.
People crowded into the streets to welcome the allied army as they came into Rome.
D-Day Invasion: Battle of Normandy
June 6, 1944 it was known as “Operation Overlord”
Normandy is located in France and was the location of the D-Day invasion. France had been under German control for 4 long years.
This is the map showing the English Channel and where the invasion routes were.
American, British, and Canadian troops executed the D-Day landing. These countries landed on specific Normandy beaches. They nicknamed the beaches in order to protect the specific landing sites from the Germans. These beaches are still often referred to as their wartime codename.
The Germans were very aware that the Allies were coming. They prepared the beaches with obstacles that would make landing difficult. There were land mines, hedgehogs, Belgian Gates, barbed wire, etc. The Germans also built huge trenches and ditches that would were flood planes. These would keep the Allies from accessing the German front easily.
The commander of the Germans was Erwin Rommel also known as “Desert Fox” – remember his role in Africa .
The Germans thought the Allies would attack at high tide. Why?
The Germans thought the Allies would attack on the Atlantic Wall which was a HUGE defensive line built by the Germans. The Atlantic Wall faced the country of Great Britain.
The Germans built bunkers on the side of mountain side.
They watched day and night for the Allies to cross the English Channel with their war ships and weapons.
The leader of the Allied forces was Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The codename for the D-Day invasion was Operation Overlord
The landing took place on the beaches of Normandy
The Allies approached the beaches at low tide before dawn
The Allies pulled out all the stops, attacking the Germans from the air, water, and eventually ground.
The Allies loaded planes, blimps, boats, and huge warships with supplies, ammunition, and weapons
Paratroopers were a very important part of the D-Day invasion.
Zeplins or blimps were also used to cross the English Channel. These were launched from warships. The zeplins or blimps carried supplies and goods to be dropped on the beaches.
Some soldiers got sea sick or collapsed from exhaustion from swimming before making it to shore. Soldiers took huge risk in helping them up on the beach.
Within a few weeks, the Allies had landed a million troops in France.
From Normandy the Allies pushed across France. On August 25, 1944 the British and American soldiers marched through joyful crowds and liberated Paris.
Victory in Europe
Germany fought for survival on two fronts.
In the east the Soviets pushed the Germans out of eastern Europe.
In the west the British and Americans approached the German border.
In July 1944, US forces retook the island of Guam after weeks of intense fighting, leading to over 7,000 American casualties and over 18,000 Japanese killed.
Paris is liberated!
On August 25, 1944 the British troops freed Paris from German control.
Hitler had previously given an order to one of his commanders who was in charge in Paris and told him to destroy Paris before it could be liberated and the commander didn't do it.
German resistance quickly faded once the allies began invading, so they were able to take Paris back.
Battle of the Bulge
In mid-December the Germans mounted a last, desperate offensive against the Allies.
On December 16, 1944, they launched a surprise attack along a 50 mile front in Belgium.
In the Battle of the Bulge, the Germans at first drove troops and artillery deep into a bulge in the Allied lines.
After several weeks of fighting the Allies were able to push the Germans back.
The battle, which resulted in more than 100,000 casualties, marked the end of serious German resistance.
Cabanatuan Prison Camp
About 513 prisoners were being held at this prison camp in the Philippines.
US & Filpino soldiers worked together to raid the prison camp and free all of the estimated 500 prisoners.
This was one of the most successful rescue mission in all of US history.
Battle for Manila (Philippines)
The people of Manila suffered a long and brutal Japanese occupation.
Manila became a battlefield from February 4 to March 3, 1945 in street-to-street fighting with fanatical Japanese resistance.
The battle for Manila was one of the only urban combats for American troops in the Pacific.
US Seize Iwo Jima
In March 1945, the U.S. seized the island of Iwo Jima, and in June 1945, the island of Okinawa.
Thousands of Americans died in these final battles.
With much of the Japanese military destroyed America began to pound Tokyo.
The air raids killed many Civilians and crippled the Japan Economy.
In desperation, Japan unleashed their Kamikazes which crashed into our ships; sinking several destroyers.
Death of a President
President Roosevelt did not share in the Allied victory celebration.
In February 1945, he had traveled to Yalta in the Soviet Union to meet Churchill and Stalin.
After returning home Roosevelt had gone to Warm Springs, Georgia, for a vacation.
He died suddenly on April 12, 1945.
Americans were saddened by the death of the man who had led them for 12 difficult years.
Vice President Harry S. Truman became the next President of the United States and would lead American to the end of the war.
Final Phase of the War in Europe
The final phase of the war in Europe now began
By mid April 1945, the Soviets had surrounded Berlin (German capital).
Hitler who had spent the final months of the war in an underground bunker there, realized that the situation was hopeless and committed suicide on April 30.
Research says that Hitler’s cause of death was
suicide caused by gunshot and cyanide poisoning.
After Hitler’s death Germany signed and unconditional surrender on May 7, ending the war in Europe.
The Allies declared May 8 V-E Day for “Victory in Europe”.
In 1939, FDR was warned by Albert Einstein about the possibilities that the Nazis might try to use an atomic bomb.
Roosevelt created the top secret Manhattan Project
U.S. warned Japan with the Potsdam Declaration…they ignored it. Truman ordered the bombing.
August 6, 1945 – Hiroshima (Enola Gay dropped “Little Boy”) – 70,000 died
August 9 1945-Nagasaki (Fat Man) – 40,000 died
August 15, 1945 - Victory in Japan (VJ Day)
Japan formally surrendered on September 2, 1945
The End of the War in the Pacific