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Copy of Copy of Our Senses Guide Our Behaviour: Functional Analysis Of Behaviour From A Sensory Perspective
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Our Senses Guide Our Behaviour: Functional Analysis Of Behaviour From A Sensory Perspective
A willingness to understand the causes of challenging behaviour, and the knowledge and creativity to meet the needs that cause these behaviours, are necessary to give staff and students the opportunity to build a positive and happy learning environment.
To meet our student's needs, we must first have a strong understanding of Behavioural Analysis (the science of understanding the functions of behaviour), and Sensory Procesing Disorders. Let's begin with a discussion of Behavioural Analysis. Pivotal Behaviours
As developmental educators, one of the key concepts we must understand when we seek to address challenging behavior are those behaviours which are pivotal.
A pivotal behaviour may be the cause of other behaviours; it may cause other behaviours; it may maintain other behaviours; it may inhibit desired behaviours.
Ryan is a 14 year old boy with a brain lesion which has resulted in challenges related to reasoning, impulse, and aggression. He is in a self contained classroom, and recieves one on one instruction from a teacher or educational assistant.
Developmentally his communication level is equivalent to that of a four year old, and he faces significant sensory processing challenges.
A behaviour which Ryan does which has been identified as pivotal is banging on the table during lessons. For the past two years, this behaviour has been addressed by first firmly asking Ryan to stop the behaviour. Staff have been very careful to be consistent in there plan and approach. If he does not, he will be warned that he will not receive a video (a highly desired activity) during his break. Despite staff consistency, he will often become aggitated after staff warnings, and will sometimes become aggressive. Banging on the table generally leads to loss of priviledges for Ryan, and has somtimes led to aggressive behaviour, and on several occassions has resulted in BMS holds being applied to prevent imminent harm to Ryan.
Staff are exhausted, stressed, and go to work faced with the trepidation of whether Ryan will be having a 'good' day, or a 'bad' day.
When our needs and desires are not met by our senses, we will do whatever we can to meet these needs and desires.
This pursuit can result in challenging behaviour and decreased learning opportunities. Consequences and Punishment are not options for developmental educators. They don't work. Differentiated Reinforcement
offers an alternative in this scenario:
In this example, Ryan is in a hyposensory state of sensory arousal. Banging on the table is an example of seeking proprioceptive sensory information to bring himself back to sensory neutral... concepts which we will explore in greater detail later in the presentation. In this scenario, identifying
Ryan's sensory needs and
finding a creative solution to
offer a functional equivalent
to bangining on the table, such
as banging on bongos,
going for a walk, or
doing heavy lifting, would be strategies
which could help to weaken
the challenging behaviour.
Avoid reinforcing challenging behaviours
It is equally important not to strengthen challenging behaviours. Bringing negative attention to challenging behaviours can reinforce the behaviours, strengthening the negative behaviour, or even catalyzing
and sequence of more negative behaviours.
Often the sensory information gained from negative attention can become the function of a challenging behavior. Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results.
Obtain Avoid/Escape Non-socially
Escape Objects Much human behaviour is driven by the senses. This is particularily true for individuals with sensory processing disorders. Most individuals in the developmental stream have some degree of sensory processing challenges. Think Sensory Next For students in the Developmental stream, challenging behaviour more often than not has its roots in sensory processing disorder. When a behaviour presents itself, the first place that our minds should go when we seek to address the behaviour are potential sensory processing issues. Understand the Function:
Begin by Profiling the Learner Many of these behaviours are unconscious. Punishment Doesn't Work:
Understanding the Functions
of Challenging Behaviour from
the perspective of Sensory Processing Disorders There are no `good` or `bad` behaviors. There are no `good` or `bad`students. There is only human nature, which drives us all to seek out what we need. Behaviour-Sensory Challenging Behaviour Good Egg Bad Egg Human beings are driven to behave in ways that get them what they need and want.
Ryan is a 15 year old boy who has a great sense of humour who enjoys music and loves colour. Ryan has a brain lesion which has resulted in an intellectual challenge, impulse control issues, and periodic episodes of aggression. His learning is at the developmental level of a three year old.
The primary challenge specified in his IEP is behaviour. Ryan is in a self contained classroom with two other individuals. For the past four years, a challenging behaviour which Ryan has displayed has been banging on his desk. The banging upsets the other students in the classroom, one who is Autistic, and has resulted in complaints by the classroom teacher in the adjacent room who teaches Academic Math courses.
For the past two years, protocol for this behaviour has been making eye contact with Ryan and firmly asking him to stop banging on the table. Staff agree that he does this activity to bother staff and peers---he even has a mischievous smile on his face when he bangs. If he continues staff will ask again, and remind him that he will not be allowed to watch his Disney video during his break, a preferred activity for Ryan.
40% of the time, Ryan will listen to staff and stop banging. Unfortunately 60% of the time he will refuse to listen, and bang louder. When staff tell him that he will miss his video, he has thrown objects, screamed, and ripped up his work. Staff however are not prepared to cave in---Ryan must learn that there are consequences for his negative behaviour. On a number of occasions, he has attacked staff, resulting in BMS holds being applied. On one occasion, a staff member was seriously hurt, receiving a broken nose.
Staff are exhausted, and even frightened. Some dread going to work, wondering each morning if Ryan will be in a “good” mood, or a “bad” mood.
No behaviours occur without a reason; all behaviours have a cause.
Consider Medical causes Behaviours can sometimes
be the result of health issues. It is important to rule out pain and other medical problems as a function of a behaviour first. Behavioural Analysis Pivotal Behaviours/
Pivotal Learning Differential Reinforcement Differential Reinforcement is a strategy in which desirable behaviours are reinforced heavily while undesirable behaviours are reinforced at a low rate or not at all. The desirable behaviours must be incompatible with the undesirable behaviours. For example, shaking hands is incompatible with pinching.
Pivotal behaviours may be the cause of other challenging behaviours. They can also be barriers to pivotal learning opportunities.
Pivotal learning are those positive learning moments which can open the door to new learning. Pivotal learning should be student centered, and should reflect the interests, readiness, and strengths of the student. Think of pivotal behaviours as barriers to learning. We must avoid reinforcing negative behaviours to make new learning opportunities possible. Weaken Strengthen The more we increase the number of desirable behaviours that are incompatible with the negative behaviour, the more we weaken the barriers to more positive behaviours and new learning. Before a program that reshapes challenging behaviour can be developed, the learner should be profiled. Baselines in the areas of sensory, communication, and physical/psychomotor and life skills. Profiling the Learner Weaken the Barriers to Learning!Increase the positive! (ie: escape overstimulating activities, understimulating activities, changes in routine, interruption of desired activity) (ie: avoid hugs, turn-taking interaction) (ie: obtain food, activitiy, money) (hugs, verbal interaction,
turn taking) (ie: overstimulation due to light,
sound, texture, scent. Physical pain) (ie. sensory seeking behaviour:
rocking, hand flapping,
self pinching, smearing) Functions of Challenging Behaviour