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Lakes Devra

on 2 January 2012

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Transcript of Islam

Islam By: Jonathan Xu, Lekha Devara, and Allen Jiang Intro to Islam Founded by the prophet Muhammed, Islam is now the third most practiced religion in the world. The word Islam means "surrender to God" in Arabic. Islam is considered a universalizing religion, because it seeks converts throughout the world.
Islam started in Mecca, which was where Muhammad was born in 571 A.D. According to Muslim belief, Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah (the Islamic God) in a series of revelations when he was around 42 years old, or around 613 A.D. After his visions, Muhammed devoted his life to fulfill the commands he recieved from Allah. Origin Islamic Dietary Law Food and culinary customs are divided into 3 categories:
Halal: lawful
Haram: forbidden
Mashbooh: questionable, doubtful Alcohol
Pigs (considered filthy)
Donkeys and Mules
Mice/Rats X Haram Five Pillars of Islam: Shahada: Faith
Salat: Prayer
Sawm: Fasting
Zakat: Charity
Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca Halal animals must be slaughtered this way. Zabahah slaughter is done by a Muslim invoking the name of Allah cutting all neck blood vessels. Most herbivores
Birds that are not birds of prey
Fruits and vegetables
Additionally, all animals must have died by Zabihah slaughter. Horses
Fish (If permitted, do not necessarily have to undergo Zabihah)
Cheese The primary purpose of Islamic clothing is to cover a man and a woman's body as described by Islamic (Sharia) Law.
It is forbidden for men to imitate women and women to imitate men Halal
Women are instructed in Islam to guard their beauty from men
must cover their bodies with the exception of the front part of the face and hands (from wrist to fingers)
In Islam, there are 2 categoires of men that women must be in dress in front of:
Mahram - husbands, brothers, fathers, or other men of close relationships. Dress code in front of them are not as strict.
non-Mahram - any men who do not fall under the Mahram category. Women must be dressed strictly in front of them at all times.

Robe like dresses that Muslim women wear on top of regular clothing
Primary purpose is to completely cover oneself so as not to expose any attributes or beauty
Worn in black or white depending on the popularity in certain regions
Come in different types of fabrics, although Rayon/Polyester is most common Mashbooh ? ? ? Jibabs also exist in replacement of Abayas. They are like more fashionable, western-looking Abayas Wild animals
Predators (animals with fangs/talons)
Reptiles and amphibians
Blood and products made from blood
Fish that has died in the water
Any animals that have died except by Zabihah slaughter Scarves/Shawls
Worn to cover the head, neck, and upper chest areas of the body fully Niqab
garment that enables Muslim women to cover their faces (besides the head and hair) X X Long blouses are used to cover the hip and waist area.

Long skirts, which are more common, are sometimes used. They can be found in Western markets. v I v I V I Zabihah Slaughter
The dress code for men is not as strict as women
Garment must not hang down below the ankles
Consists of a Kufiya, Izzar, Thoub, and sometimes a Bisht. الشهادة‎ Kufiya
Worn by men to cover their head in order to symbolize respect to Allah: Allah is always above them, and they below Allah. Thoub
The traditional top worn by Muslim men
Sits on the upper region of the body and is long enough to reach below the knees
Come in different colors depending on culture and person

An overcoat-like clothing that is usually worn with the thoub in the winter Izzar
Used to cover the lower part of the body
wrapped around the waist and reaches the knees or ankles Muhammmed Qur'an- word of God and teachings of Muhammad.
Muslims believe that the purpose of existence is to worship God. They also believe that Islam is a complete and universal version of faith that was revealed at many times as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. (Prophets)
Only one god Allah exists, and he is the one who created mankind and the universe. The principle qualities of Allah are mercy and compassion.
True belief in Islam means strict monotheism.
Muslims view Jesus as simply a prophet and not the Son of God.
Ka'Bah Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina Najaf, Iran Sunni Muslims Karbala, Iran •The profession of faith in Islam, “There is no other god but God; and Mohammed is the Prophet of God.” This is translated from, “la ilaha ill’Allah, Muhammad rasul Allah.” To convert to Islam one must; a) repeat it aloud, b) understand it perfectly, c) believe it in the heart, d) profess it until death, e) recite it correctly, and f) declare it without hesitation. This is what is incorporated in the first pillar, Shehada. Other Major Beliefs Sunni Muslims believe that any of the four caliphs (Muhammad's successors) and their heirs are the rightful leaders of Islam. Shia Muslims believe that only the fourth caliph, Ali, and his heirs are the rightful leaders of Islam. Shia Muslims On one of his suicide attempts, he was contacted by the angel Gabriel, who told him he was a Prophet of Allah and that he was to "reclaim the lost people of the land". These revelations were the start of Islam, and afterwards, Muhammad began to spread the relevations as a self-proclaimed prophet amongst the people of Mecca. Thus Muhammed became... Muhammed was a very respected man, even before his relevations. His name, Muhammed, means "praised one" and he was later given the name As-Saddiq, or "Truthful". He was born into the Quarish tribe of Mecca. Muhammed the Man Muhammed was so respected, in fact, that many of the warring tribes (and there were many) entrusted him with their possessions, EVEN IF they were warring with his tribe, the Quarish. They knew he would uphold any trust given to him. Despite Mohammed's peace with the Meccan community, he still suffered many problems in life. He often sought escape through dreams, and when that didn't work, suicide attempts.

(Note: Attempts = Didn't work out) The Prophet!!! The Relevation Diffusion Islam diffused very quickly from there. By the time of Muhammed's death, he and his followers had spread across the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, and towards Europe through three major fronts of conquest. Muhammed had managed to convert many kings, so Islam now traveled with the armies. After Muhammed's death, the religion (now in split into various forms) spread even further, across the Indian Ocean into Southeast Asia by trade and into surrounding regions by conquest.. Recently, by migration, Islam has spread further into Europe, South Africa, and the Americas.

It is now almost everywhere, in some form or another. Further Diffusion Here is a small video that summarizes the major diffusion routes of Islam and other predominant religions. History of Religon The Death of the Prophet When Muhammmad died in 632 A.D., a major dispute erupted:
Who was the Prohet's successor? All of Islam became divided over this one little question.
A total of four different heirs (later known as the four caliphs) were recognized by various sections of Islam: Abu'Bakr Umar Ali Othman The first caliph was Abu'Bakr, who was the father in-law of Muhammad. His two-year reign included the expansion of Islam into Syria and Iraq.
Umar, the second Caliph, was credited with fixing a new era to the year of emigration from Mecca to Medina. Unfortunately, he was assasinated in 644 BC Tried to push the borders of the empire further north, west, and east
Authorized an official version of the Qu'ran and had all other copies burned
Assasinated in 656 BC by Egyptians
The Fourth Caliph:
Ali was Muhammad's son in-law
Shia Muslims believe him to be the only rightful leader of Islam
Had some quarrels with Abu'Bakr after Muhammad's death, but continuoulsy helped the other three caliphs with legal matters.
Tenets of Islam •The next pillar is Salat, or prayer. Qur’an texts say that one should pray three times a day, but Islamic tradition requires five; at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, evening, and night. They are not allowed to waive their prayers even if one is sick or on a journey. Muslims must wash their foreheads, hands, and feet before they start a prayer. They pray on a mat or rug and shoes must be removed before stepping on the rug to pray. When praying Muslims must face Mecca, this is identified in a Mosque by a small niche. Muslims participate in a public prayer one day a week which is mostly attended by men. Prayer is considered the hearth of Islam. •The third pillar of Islam is Zakat, or charity. It is duty of a Muslim to give to poor. There are two types of Zakat; legal and voluntary. 2.5% of a Muslim’s income is set aside for charity. This is now less common, because Muslim states are starting to follow a more Western style of taxation. •The fourth pillar of Islam is Sawm, or fasting. It is considered the duty of a Muslim to fast during the month of Ramadan. Muslims are not to participate in eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset. •The last pillar of Islam is Hajj or a pilgrimage to the holy shrine Ka’Ba in Mecca at least once. The pilgrimage can only be performed on the seventh to the tenth of the last month of the Islamic calendar. Sunni and Shia There are some differences between the belief systems of the two major Muslim denominations. The two largest differences between them are: Caliphs Holy Sites Clothing Men Women The End!
"The Four Caliphs." The Four Caliphs - The Hajj School. Mobily. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.go-makkah.com/english/dossier/articles/140/The+four+Caliphs.html>.
"THE FOUR RIGHTEOUS CALIPHS." The Four Righteous Caliphs. Princeton University. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.princeton.edu/~batke/itl/denise/right.htm>.
Grigus, Andrew. "Islamic Dietary Law." CloveGarden. Clove Garden. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.clovegarden.com/diet/islam.html>.
"History of Religion - YouTube." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. YouTube. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXhrzrpc0Ig>.
HNN. "What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims--and Why Does It Matter?" History News Network. George Mason University, 22 Feb. 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://hnn.us/articles/934.html>.
Linzer, Dov. "We Don't Add to the List of Treifot - Really? | The Daily Daf." Web log post. The Daf - Rabbi Dov Linzer's Daf Yomi Blog. The Daf, 22 Aug. 2011. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.the-daf.com/talmud-conceptual/hullin-54-we-dont-add-to-the-list-of-treifot-really/>.
Mahdi, Muhsin S., Fazlur Rahman, and Annemarie Schimmel. "Islam (religion) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295507/Islam>.
MapsofWar. "History of Religion." Maps of War ::: Visual History of War, Religion, and Government. Maps of War. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of-religion.html>.
Mawdudi, Sayid A. A. "The Problem Of Qadiyanism - by Sayid Abu'l Ala Mawdudi." Islam For Today. Islam For Today. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.islamfortoday.com/mawdudi01.htm>.
"Muslim Countries of Africa/Asia/Middle East/South East Asia: C. 2000." The Islam Project. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.islamproject.org/education/Africa_Mideast_etc.html>.
"PBS - Islam: Empire of Faith - Timeline." PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Public Broadcasting Service. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/timeline.html>.
Rahman, Syed M.A. "Seven Conditions For Women's Dress in Islam." Islam For Today. Islam For Today. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.islamfortoday.com/7conditions.htm>.
"Shahada (Faith): First Pillar of Islam - ReligionFacts." Religion, World Religions, Comparative Religion - Just the Facts on the World's Religions. Religion Facts. Web. 13 Dec. 2011. <http://www.religionfacts.com/islam/practices/shahada-faith.htm>.
Ramadan is the 9th month of the Islamic calendar. During it, Muslims fast to focus their thoughts to Allah and the poor.
Eid A-Fitr is a three-day celebration that falls at the end of Ramadan. It is a time to give the poor and celebrate with friends and family.
Important Holidays نهاية نهاية نهاية orks i ted W
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