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Roman

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Jasmit Sarwan

on 25 February 2016

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Transcript of Roman

Literature
Roman Republic
Featured Within Your Tour:

Government
Religion
Environment
Arts and Culture
Science and Technology
Economics
Society

Religion
Believed in anthropomorphic gods based on Greek, Etruscan, and Latin mythology
Examples: Jupiter, Venus, Mars, Minerva, Pluto
Gods, omens, and spirits were believed to be reasons on how the world works.
Government
It all began when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan conquerors in 509 BCE, the start of the Roman Republic.
Once they were free, the Romans established a republic, a government in which citizens would elect representatives to rule on their behalf.
Citizenship
Citizenship varied greatly. The full citizen could vote, marry freeborn persons, and practice commerce. Some citizens were not allowed to vote or hold public office, but maintained the other rights. A third type of citizen could vote and practice commerce, but could not hold office or marry freeborn women.
Aqueducts
The Roman Republic
Rituals
ANIMAL SACRIFICES!
If entrails are looking good, that is seen as permission to declare war
bad entrails= bad omen
Failed rituals would start over again to not anger the god
Prayers to bring Roman victory in battle
Worship
Cities choose a specific god and build temples for them
Many festivals and games were held to satisfy the gods
The Romans worshiped their domestic deities in the privacy of their own homes.
Spirits of family ancestors were honored and given small offerings.
The Roman Republic aqueducts spread over many miles through mountains and valleys carrying water to Rome and other cities only with the power of Gravity.
Culture
Society
Education

The Imperial Cult
Paved Roads
started by the Senate during the time of Emperor Augustus who wanted to deify him (make him into a god).
An emperor requested their successor to be deified.
Some emperors believed themselves to be either demigods, reincarnations of gods, or not worthy to be deified
Architecture

The Roman Republic was the first to pave their roads. This allowed their armies to travel in any weather and it also gave Rome easy access to trade and commerce.
Commons, Freed people, and Slaves.
Commons consisted of all other freeborn Roman citizens.
Freed people consisted of men and women who had been slaves but had bought their freedom or been manumitted.
not fully free because they had various restrictions on their rights and owed certain duties to their former masters but could become citizens if their former masters were citizens and they had been formally manumitted.
Slavery was a system of chattel slavery where human beings were born into slavery or sold into slavery through war or piracy.
Language
Portraiture
Hot Water
Religious Offices
Aqueducts supplied Roman baths with water, but before the water went into the baths it was heated with log fires and then hot water was poured into the baths.
The native language of the Romans was Latin. Rome´s expansion spread Latin throughout Europe, and over time
Vulgar

Latin

evolved and dialectic in different locations, gradually shifting into number of distinct Romance languages.
The city of Rome also had several theaters, gymnasiums, and many taverns, and baths(which are all seen in today´s society). Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temple.
Aqueducts
were built to bring water to urban centers and wine and oil were imported from abroad through the aqueducts.
Patricians and Plebeians
Pontifex Maximus
head state of religion
holds both religious and political authority
Rex sacorum
king of rites
substitute for royal authority over religious matters
Tradition dictated that patricians and plebeians should be strictly separated; marriage between the two classes was even prohibited.
Gradually, the plebeians obtained even more power and eventually could hold the position of consul. Despite these changes, though, the patricians were still able to use their wealth to buy control and influence over elected leaders.
Arts
Education began at the age of around 6, and in the next 6-7 years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of
reading, writing,

and counting.
This is prevalent to how modern school systems work today.
Some of the earliest works we hold are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome.

Many
Roman philosophers
such as
Cicero(rhetoric & philosophical)
Juvenal& Persius (satire)
have been the pivotal influence from writers of the Middle Ages to writes of modern-day America
Roman portraiture borrowed certain details from Greek art but adapted these to their own needs.
Veristic (hyper-realistic facial portrayal) images
often show their male subjects with receding hairlines, deep wrinkles, and even warts. The body of the portrait would appear more idolizied and less detailed htan the face.
Environment
Location: Rome is located in an area that people can easily get to by using the third longest river in Italy, the
Tiber River
in order to easily
transport goods
where Romans can buy and sell them.
The city of Rome(with
Italy
as its home) has many benefits due to its location of being a peninsula
Fresh Water
Rivers
Sea Access
Good Land
Protection
The social structure within society consisted of the upper classes, Senators and Equestrians, and the lower class, the Commons, Freed people, and Slaves.
Upper Class
Upper classes consisted of the Senators and Equestrians. This class was dominated by the nobles, families whose ancestors included at least one consul. The first man in his family to be elected consul, thus qualifying his family for noble status, was called a “new man”, although this term was used in varying senses—it could refer to an equestrian who was the first in his family to be elected to political office and thus join the senatorial class.
Lower Classes
15 Flamines
priests to individual gods like Jupiter (Flamen dialis) Mars and Quirinus
specializes in prayers and rituals to their particular god
16 Pontifices
oversaw the organization of religious events
kept records of proper religious procedures, the dates of festivals, and the days of special religious significance.
Vestal Virgins
main duty is to guard the sacred fire in the temple of Vesta (goddess of hearth and home); if failed: whipped
performed rituals and baked sacred cakes for ceremonies
Economics
This is a Silver Denarius. This form of currency dominated the Roman Economy for over 450 years. The coins were designed by powerful families for political purposes and most of the messages included in these coins can still be understood today.
Stop at 2:50
(Stop at 1:36)
start: 1:28
end: 2:42
Science and Technology
Fun fact: Most of the countries today copied Rome's governing style, even America.
Important note:
Roman mythology would have a significant influence on the future of western civilization. One needs only to look at the names of the days and months (Tuesday, Saturday, January and June), the languages of European nations, and the names of the planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Pluto.)
Full transcript