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FRUFC Mission Update Presentation

September 21, 2017

Dan Staley

on 20 December 2017

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Transcript of FRUFC Mission Update Presentation

Big Picture
Up to Speed
Preliminary Findings
More Complexity
Wrap-up, Next Steps
Update Report on EAB Remote Sensing Project
Pest Detection Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
ISA International 2017
Washington D.C., USA
August 2, 2017 11:20 - 12:00
Dan Staley
Arbor Drone, LLC
All presentations on Prezi.com (search 'Dan Staley')
survey, construction, volumetric. Use what you
have from TX, others, Wendy Booth.
Figure out how to fit nursery trade
maybe one here for aerial counts and
some other place for indoor flying? (several years
out for sure)
Dan Staley, Arbor Drone LLC
Tim Haynie and Loren Anderson, Spectrabotics LLC

Project Overview
Aircraft & Equipment
Current sensor standard (at 100 m/328 ft AGL):
Resolution ~6-9 cm (4 in) ground sample
distance (GSD)
MicaSense RedEdge Sensor
Each sensor is "tuned" to receive only specific
wavelengths of light in a narrow "band"
Multispectral Sensors
Hyperspectral Sensors
Early Detection
We are using three stages of infestation
Early EAB Detection
What we know
Early EAB Detection
Species ID
Species ID
New goal is 85% accuracy
People we've consulted with who've
done hyperspectral say is achievable
Finding inventory inaccuracies
High-resolution aerial identification is
around the corner
Thank You!
Early detection of EAB has been done
One standard vegetation index won't do it
Will soon make rapid deployment of high-
resolution remote sensing for pest
monitoring and action standard tool for
urban forest managers
We think - but are not 100% sure today - that
species ID can be done with 5-band sensors
Maryland C
Unforeseen benefits & challenges
Explore whether techniques used in precision agriculture can be used to detect early onset of EAB
Using high-resolution imagery from drones flown at 100m above ground level (AGL)
Using 5-band multispectral sensor mounted on custom-built 8-rotor UAV
Custom-built octocopter - Colorado College
Payne Jungblut: Ground crew,
spotter, mapping, gear shlepper
- Loren Anderson, COO Spectrabotics
- Tim Haynie, CEO Spectrabotics
- Darren Ceckanowicz, Technical Dir.
Program on Environment, Colorado
Foreseen challenges
Cloud-based software companies not good enough
for our analysis needs
Foreseen challenges
Our processes much higher definition
Need as many pixels at Red Edge to perform math to
determine individual species
Resolution Examples
Problem Statement
Can we use drones and remote sensing for early detection and monitoring of Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) to give urban forest managers high-resolution, timely data with which to make decisions?
Custom-built octocopter "The Tractor" Spectrabotics
1. Early
2. Deadwood less than ~33%
3. Greater than 33% deadwood
Because of reflectance differences, PHC
Early Detection
Important to understand tree physiology and reaction
to manipulate reflectance values in useful analysis
Reflectance values turned into numbers to
manipulate to look for what you want (what a
Vegetation Index does)

Looking for clues in chlorophyll, anthocyanin, carotene
for early detection
Early Detection
What will this look like in reflectance?
Chlorophyll index
Hi-res NDVI
Non-"standard" indices
Early Detection: NDVI Issues
"Standard" ag. vegetation index - NDVI - saturates at high Leaf Area Index (LAI)
Early Detection
"Standard" agriculture indices inadequate to task
Must understand what is visible in bands - we have to
manipulate reflectance values to understand
Fancy math needed to integrate multiple vegetation
indices (also needed for species ID)
Still analyzing datasets and understanding
time of season, health
Available 'here is your box' ag software is OK, but
not suited to good urban forestry - due to limited
range of vegetation indices available
Amazing speed of technological advancement will
mean aerial urban forestry will be standard tool
'Technology forester' a new staff position??
NDVI inadequate
Anthocyanin alone
is inadequate
Chlorophyll - anthocyanin
What we don't know
Whether our sample size today is statistically
Why anthocyanins don't always show up in
lightly stressed trees (less chlorophyll...)
DBH will be a challenge for some time
without LiDAR flights
Work still needed to analyze and streamline custom
Replication in more areas next
OK now for parks, landscape/turf industry,
maintenance of constructed landscapes
Flight Information
16.93 mi.
245.44 ac.
90 mins.
Image size: ~88 m x 66 m (294 x 220 ft.)
Urban environment much more difficult to filter out
backgrounds - turf, asphalt, concrete, etc.
Drought, late freezes, irrigation confounding factors
(hammering certain spp. this year)
"If it were easy, it would be done already"
Early Detection
Keys to ground/windshield ID?
Thinning from top
Leaves in thinning areas ~less green
Epicormic shoots
What will this look like in reflectance?
Thinning canopy, ~no deadwood
Early Detection
We are using three stages of infestation
(Thinning canopy, no deadwood)
Early Detection
We are using three stages of infestation
(Thinning canopy, no deadwood)
Why anthocyanins are inconsistent across
Front Range Urban Forestry Council
September 21, 2017
Golden, CO
Front Range Urban Forestry Council
September 21, 2017
Golden, CO
Project Goals
Early detection of EAB
Species ID to ~75-80% accuracy
Demonstrate remote sensing via UAV can be a low-cost, rapidly-deployable, accurate tool for early detection and monitoring of EAB
Deliver report with analyzed data to Denver
Project Overview
Flying parks and streets (public trees) in Denver
City Park, Berkeley Lake Park
Berkeley neighborhood (NW Denver)
Analysis using Spectrabotics platform
Ground-truthing using DJI Phantom 3 Pro and Moto Z2 Play camera
Flying public trees in Boulder for EAB hits
Keewaydin Park
SE Boulder - ~Baseline Rd and Foothills Pkwy
Other Analyses
Overall health and inventory use: health
Species ID
Appropriate pixels on 'red edge' to determine individual species?
Other Analyses
Overall health and inventory use: inventory health
Clear differences in health can be seen (orange is better
foliage condition)
Other Analyses
Overall health and inventory use:
Quercus rubra
Denver 2015 inventory - E = excellent, F = fair
Other Analyses
Overall health and inventory use:
Quercus macrocarpa
2015 inventory date, some areas not irrigated
Other Analyses
Overall health and inventory use: Street scale
2015 inventory date, some areas not irrigated
Red = more anthocyanin (stress)
Later Detection
Anthocyanin (stress pigment) seems to go away the later the stage of infestation (?)
"Proof-of-concept" project
Species ID
Continuing to refine process for species ID
Full transcript