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03 English Colonies
Transcript of 03 English Colonies
NEW ENGLAND COLONIES
Warm, long growing season = CASH CROPS
Profit & Plantations
Part of MA
Mixed - Breadbasket
Religion - Trade - Fish & Ships
Tobacco, Indigo, Rice
1607 - Proprietary colony (105)
1608 - John Smith
1609 - Starving time (400)
Rolfe introduces tobacco $$$
1610 - Only 60 colonist are alive
1614 - Rolfe marries Pocahontas (peace)
1622 - Powhatan peace broken
1624 - Crown takes over
1676 - Bacon's Rebellion - over taxes & Indian Trade
Founded for Catholics
Soon Protestants immigrated
Religious conflict lead to "Toleration Act"
made it a crime to restrict religious rights of Christians
Carolinas & Georgia
Charles II give land between Virginia & Spanish FL to supporters - 1663
Splits into North & South - 1712
Slavery grows on Plantations
Started proprietary but crown took over
Georgia starts as debtors colony (1733) outlawed slavery and planned small farms... two decades pass and crown takes over... rice plantations flourish
50 acres/head encouraged rich colonists to bring servants and relatives.
The southern colonies were typically motivated more by gold than god; however Maryland is an exception to that.
Factors for Expansion of Slavery
High colonist death rates
Shortages in labor
Falling slave prices
Potential huge profits
People lived on scattered farms and plantations rather than in towns. Land owners tended to become very wealthy. Growing slave populations caused concerns among whites and Slave codes were enacted.
Founded for Profit
Founded for Religious Reasons
Let's look at Jamestown, Maryland, the Carolinas and Georgia...
Merchants, Shipbuilding, Craftspeople
Harsh Climate & Rocky Soil
meant no cash crops, family farms, little need for slave labor, economy of the sea...
Apprentice: A person who is learning a trade from a skilled employer, having agreed to work for a fixed period at low wages.
In contrast to the South, in New England many lived in growing port cities and small towns.
Colonists in New England also had more access to schools and early education.
Let's take a look at one of the first New England settlements, Plymouth...
Trouble in Paradise
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Today we are going to begin looking at the religious landscape of the New England and Middle Colonies...
The Pilgrims were one Separatist group that left England in the early 1600s to escape persecution.
Puritans were dissenters who wanted to purify, or reform, the Anglican Church... they eventually left England for Massachusetts to seek religious freedom to build an ideal Christian community.
Father of American Democracy
Separation of Church & State
Fair treatment of Indians
This attitude of protest would cause not only separation from the Anglican Church but conflict among protestants in the New World as well.
Opened voting to non-church members
Ministers not needed
Direct relationship with god
The Society of Friends, or the Quakers did not follow formal religious practices and dressed plainly. They believed in the equality of men and women before God and supported nonviolence and religious tolerance for all people... persecuted in both England and America.
For more info click below...
The Dutch founded New Netherland in 1613 as a trading post for exchanging furs with the Iroquois. The center of the fur trade in New Netherland was the town of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. Generous land grants to patroons, or lords, and religious tolerance soon brought Jews, French Huguenots, Puritans, and others to the colony.
Governor Peter Stuyvesant surrendering New Amsterdam to the British, September 8, 1664: wood engraving, American, late 19th century.
New York & New Jersey
New Amsterdam & New Netherlands
William Penn was born in London as the son of a wealthy admiral. Joined the Quakers in 1666 and became an active preacher and writer of religious works. He supported toleration of dissenters. In 1681 he received a charter to establish a new colony called Pennsylvania. There, Penn put his beliefs into practice. He insisted on fair dealings with local American Indians, welcomed immigrants, and promised religious toleration.
Penn named the capital of his colony Philadelphia, which means “the city of brotherly love.” In 1682 the Duke of York sold Penn a region to the south of Pennsylvania. This area, called Delaware, remained part of Pennsylvania until 1776.
Pennsylvania & Delaware
Mixed, but trading and commerce were always leading motivators in this region.
Good climate and rich land = large amounts of staple crops (crops that are always needed) such as wheat, barley, and oats. Farmers also raised livestock.
Slaves were somewhat important to the middle colonies but indentured servants largely filled the middle colonies’ growing labor needs.
Trade was very important to the economy of the middle colonies. Merchants in Philadelphia and New York City exported colonial goods to markets in Britain and the West Indies. These products included wheat from New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
"The Middle Mix"
City & Farms
Between 1655 and 1662, sixty Quaker missionaries arrived in the Plymouth and Massachusetts colonies. They attracted many converts. The Quakers were to the Puritans in Massachusetts what the Separatists had been to the Anglicans in England decades earlier, except that now the Puritans were on the receiving end of the attack. Quakers disrupted Puritan religious services and criticized Puritan colonial officials with such scathing vehemence that colonial authorities believed they had to take harsh action to maintain their authority. In 1657/8 the Plymouth General Court banished Quakers from Plymouth but allowed them to form communities on Cape Cod and along the southern Massachusetts coast. The General Court in the Massachusetts colony was less tolerant. Quakers were banished and if they returned, as several did and were punished severely. Between 1659 and 1661 four were hung publicly. In 1661 the Test Act, prevented Quakers and nonconforming Puritans in the Massachusetts Colony from serving in public office. Thus Quakers gravitated to business and commerce.