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The Development of the Biblical Canon

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Tiffany Sartain

on 3 October 2012

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Transcript of The Development of the Biblical Canon

ca. 250 BCE Translation of LXX Begins ca. 400 BCE Torah canonized ca. 200 BCE Canon of Prophets closed 621 BCE Beginning of Official Canonization Book found in the temple, likely Deuteronomy, was canonized (considered to contain God's word) through a covenant (cf. II Kings 22:8-23:3). Led to Josiah's reforms. 550 BCE Modifications by the
Deuteronomistic Editor Deuteronomistic editor combines the canonized Deutronomy with J and E's extant national epics 450 BCE Priestly Code Inserted Priestly code is added to existing canon. This is the last major addition to the Pentateuch (though smaller additions occur for approximately the next 50 years) Final editors aim to include all Mosaic and pre-Mosaic writings. This version is distributed widely, resulting in establishment of synagogues for its reading and interpretation. Greek translation of the Pentateuch for Alexandrian Jews, traditionally sponsored by Ptolemy II and carried out by a symbolic 72 Elders whose independent translations were all found to be in perfect agreement. Work to translate additions to the Canon continues after this time. In response to the silence of prophets, scholars search for prophetic books for inclusion into the canon. This process occurred prior to 180 BCE, at which time both the law and the prophets were known to Ben Sirach. The LXX Gains New Books ca. 90 CE Jewish Canon is Closed Responding to Christian propaganda following the description of the temple the the Writings are added to the Tanakh, and the canon is closed (debatably) at the Council of Jamnia under the leadership of Johanan ben Zakkai. In addition to the Writings made canonical in the Hebrew Bible, the LXX gains Tobit, Judith, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus son of Sirach, Baruch, Letter of Jeremiah, additions to Daniel (The Prayer of Azarias, the Song of the Three Children, Susanna and Bel and the Dragon), additions to Esther, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees, 3 Maccabees, 4 Maccabees, 1 Esdras, Odes, including the Prayer of Manasseh, the Psalms of Solomon, and Psalm 151. These, along with the whole of the LXX are rejected at the Council of Jamnia. 160 CE Iraeneaus Argues for 4 Gospels ca. 150 CE Marcion Rejects Jewish Canon Marcion, Bishop from Pontus, rejects the entire Old Testament as well as all newer works excepting Luke and writings of Paul.27 NT books affirmed, distinguished Hebrews from the letters of Paul Considering evidence of usage and apostolicity, Irenaeus insists on 4 Gospels, paralleling the 4 winds and 4 cherubim in Paradise. ca 170 CE Muratorian Canon Earliest known list of the NT canon, includes 4 Gospels, Acts, Paul, Wisdom of Solomon, Apocalypse of Peter, Espistles of Barnabus, and 1 Clement. Absent from the list are Hebrews, James, 1 &2 Peter, 3 John. Clement of Alexandria Excepts Non-Pauline Letters as Canon ca 150-ca 215 CE Utilized an open canon which included I Peter, I and II John, and Jude among other books now considered apocryphal or non-canonical. 230 CE Origen Compiles Text Usage Information Origen classifies texts as either acknowledged, disputed, or false. Athanasius of Alexandria 367 CE In his paschal letter, considers the 27 books of the New Testament to be cananical 383 CE Damasus Commissions the Vulgate ca 1530 CE Luther's Canon Luther rejects the deuterocanon, coining the term apocrypha, asserting that these books are still beneficial for reading but are not equal to Scripture. He places them in an appendix in his own Bible. ca 180 CE Eusebius References the Syriac New Testament 5th Century CE Syriac Canon (Peshitta) Reaches Current Form First Century CE Old Testament is Translated to Syriac Language At this time, composed of the Diatessoron along with Acts and the Pauline Epistles ca 170 CE Tatian's Diatesseron Tatian creates the first Gospel harmony, using the four Gospels to create one harmonious narrative Four Gospels Replace Diatesseron early 4th century CE Tatian is declared a heretic and copies of the Diatesseron are replaced by the four Gospels. 325 CE Eusebius Distributes Copies of Scripture Eusebius creates 50 copies of the Scripture he considers canonical for distribution. No copies have survived to determine which writings were included. 363 CE Council at Laodicea 26 Books affirmed (no Revelation) 393 CE 397 CE Council at Hippo Carthage 27 NT books affirmed, distinguished Hebrews from the letters of Paul 27 NT books affirmed, distinguished Hebrews from the letters of Paul 1545 CE Council of Trent Roman Catholic Church reaffirms use of the Vulgate as the authoritative version, including all books with equal standing. 904 CE Pope Damasus Lists books in present number and order ca 175 CE Old Latin Around this time, the Scriptures are translated from the LXX into Latin in North Africa Due to poor translation as well as recognition of the problematic nature of translation from the LXX rather than from the Hebrew scriptures, Pope Damasus commissions Jerome to revise the Latin Bible. Justin Martyr "the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read" indicating the old and new testaments together. ca. 150 CE Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ezra
Nehemiah
Tobit
Judith
Esther
1 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
Job
Psalms
The Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
The Song of Songs
Wisdom
Ecclesiasticus / Sirach
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Baruch
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts of Apostles
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation Roman Catholic Canon Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
Ezra
Nehemiah
Esther
Job
Psalm
Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
Song of Solomon
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation Protestant Canon 1054 CE The Eastern Orthodox Church Breaks Away The Eastern Orthodox Church reclaims the LXX, including the extra books rejected by the Roman Catholic Church along with the New Testament Earliest Christians use the LXX and various other books as they become available Following Luther's cue after the Council of Trent, the Protestant church (in a less official capacity) defines its Canon to align with the Hebrew Bible and the affirmed 27 NT books Genesis
Exodus
Leviticus
Numbers
Deuteronomy
Joshua
Judges
Ruth
1 Samuel
2 Samuel
1 Kings
2 Kings
1 Chronicles
2 Chronicles
1 Esdras
2 Esdras
Tobit
Judith
Esther
1 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
3 Maccabees
4 Maccabees
Job
Psalms
Prayer of Manasseh
The Proverbs
Ecclesiastes
The Song of Songs
Wisdom
Ecclesiasticus / Sirach
Isaiah
Jeremiah
Lamentations
Baruch
Ezekiel
Daniel
Hosea
Joel
Amos
Obadiah
Jonah
Micah
Nahum
Habakkuk
Zephaniah
Haggai
Zechariah
Malachi Matthew
Mark
Luke
John
Acts of Apostles
Romans
1 Corinthians
2 Corinthians
Galatians
Ephesians
Philippians
Colossians
1 Thessalonians
2 Thessalonians
1 Timothy
2 Timothy
Titus
Philemon
Hebrews
James
1 Peter
2 Peter
1 John
2 John
3 John
Jude
Revelation Eastern Orthodox Canon The Development of the Biblical Canon The Hebrew Bible The LXX The New Testament Syriac Latin Versions Eastern Orthodox Protestant Tiffany Sartain
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