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when water is boiled at a very high temperature, the volume increases significantly, producing a force so powerful that it can turn a piston back and forth inside a cylinder that is attached to a crankshaft so that the back and forth motion can be transformed into a rotary motion to drive machinery.
Watt's invention was not new, but his creation was the first efficient steam engine. The Pre-Industrial Era and
The Beginning of the
Revolution Cottage Industries:
A cottage industry is an industry that is completely home based.
In the pre-industrial times, industry was very dispersed across the world. People had basic tools and equipment that was made at home, or purchased on a very local basis.
One of the key inventions to start the Revolution was the Steam Engine, made by James Watt, a maker of mathematical tools, in Scotland 1769. What is the
Industrial Revolution? -The Industrial Revolution is a gradual change in industry, involving technology, which eventually lead to other things to be produced.
-The Industrial Revolution started around 1750, and diffused to Europe and North America in the nineteenth century. It did not spread globally until the 1900's.
-The technology that was created changed life for people world wide, and transformed how goods were manufactured. Henry Cort Henry Cort was an English iron master. During the Industrial Revolution in England, Cort began refining iron from pig iron to wrought iron (or bar iron) using innovative production systems. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore. The Henry Cort Community College bears his name and is located in the town of Fareham, in the south of Hampshire, England. Abraham Darby He developed a method of producing pig iron in a blast furnace fueled by cfuel rather than charcoal. This was a major step forward in the production of iron as a raw material for the Industrial Revolution. Transportation Transport changed very quickly in the period 1700-1900 as a result of an increased need for better methods of moving goods, new technologies and large scale investment in the countries infra-structure (communications network).
The changes came in several stages. First Roads were improved, then Canals were built and finally the Railway was developed. Each change had an impact upon life in the country, each shortened travel times over longer distances and each enabled industrialists to seek new markets in previously out of reach areas of the country. Likewise they enabled more raw materials and goods to be shipped to and from factories, providing further impetus to the industrial age. Ashton Kluttz :) The Industrial Revolution Matthew Boulton Matthew Boulton was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
Boulton applied modern techniques to the minting of coins, striking millions of pieces for Britain and other countries, and supplying the Royal Mint with up-to-date equipment. Richard Arkwright Sir Richard Arkwright was an Englishman who, although the patents were eventually overturned, is often credited with inventing the spinning frame, later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. He also patented a carding engine that could convert raw cotton into yarn. Chemical Changes The traditional method of bleaching involved either sun exposure of boiling. In 1746, a method of using sulfuric acid to bleach. In 1798, the process was further expanded using chlorine gas and lime.
Sulfuric acid was used to dye clothing by combining it with another acid, which produces color.
Blue when combined with Copper
Green when combined with Iorn
White with Zinc Food Processing Diffusion to Europe The Europeans developed many of the early inventions in the revolution in the late 1700's. The Belgians discovered coal mining techniques, the French had the first furnace, and the Germans, the cotton mill. It did not reach the rest of Europe until the 1800's. Diffusion to America In 1776, the USA was an agricultural society, dependant on imports. Manufacturing was more expensive to produce than to import because labor was scarce. The US's first textile mill was in Pawtucket in 1791. After that, industry diffused very quickly creating an industrious society. Nicholas Appert developed canning in 1810, which preserved food longer more successfully. Older techniques (pickling, fermenting, and drying) were not as successful because canning helped fight bacteria because the product was kept in boiling water.