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Chapter 20/21 APUSH 3rd Hour
Transcript of Chapter 20/21 APUSH 3rd Hour
& Hope Healey
The Progressive Impulse
Women And Reform
The Assault On The Parties
Crusade For Social Order And Reform
Sources of Progressive Reform
Challenging The Capitalist Order
Varieties of Progressivism & The Muckrakers
The Social Gospel & The Settlement House Movement
The Allure of Expertise & Women and the Professions
The "New Woman"
Early Attacks & Municipal Reform
New Forms of Government
Parties and Interest Groups
Labor, and Machine, and Reform
African Americans and Reform
The Temprerance Crusade
The Dream of Socialism
Decentralization and Regulation
Progressives did not agree on the form their ideal changes should happen so a variety of reform impulses popped up with some having very little in common.
antimonopoly was the fear or concentrated power. It wanted to limit and spread wealth. This appealed to many workers, farmers, and middle-class americans.
Another impulse was the thought that individuals are part of a great web and that a persons welfare depends on the societies welfare.
Faith in knowledge was the possibilities of using social principals of nature and social sciences. They belived knowledge was more important for making a better society.
A modernized government must play an important role to improve and stabilize society.
Journalist were the first to point public attention to the injustices of the time. They were known as Muckrakers. They exposed scandal, corruption, and injustice to the public. In the beginning their targets were trusts and railroads. But at the turn of the century the muckrakers started looking at government and urban political machines. The most influencial was Lincoln Steffens. His portraits of machine governments and boss rule in all sorts of major cities like New York and Chicago helped create feelings for urban political reform. The Muckrakers reached their peak in tge first decade of the 1900's. They helped to inspire other Americans to take action.
Injustice helped create the Social Gospel. By the 1990's it became a strong movement by American Protestantism and others devoted to create social justice, mainly in big cities.
Salvation Army was an example of the fusion of reform and religion. It spread through the U.S. and helped the poor with material and spiritual aid.
Religious heads(example pastors) left traditional perish work to help in troubled cities..
Walter Rauschenbusch wrote several influencial writings on the possibilities for human salvation through Christian reform. He believed that every person should work to make a humanitarian evolution of the social fabric.
Pope Leo XIII's publication Rerum Novarum was used in the Catholics battle for social justice. Father John Ryan took the Popes warning to heart and he worked to expand the scope of Catholic social welfare organizations.
It was never a big movement but it created the commitment to help even the least like citizens.
A big element of the progressives was the belief of the influence of the environment on individual development. Progressives theorists disagreed with social darwinists and said the poverty and ignorance was the effects of an unhealthy environment. so to change them they must improve their environment.
Nothing created more distress than crowded immigrant neighborhood shown by pictures by people like Jacob Riis.
One solution was the settlement house like the Hull House started by Jane Addams. It was staffed by the educated middle class and it worked to help immigrant families adapt to the new country. They accepted the belief that middle class people must impart their own values to immigrants and teach them to create middle class lifestyles.
Central to the settlement houses were the efforts of college women. They provided the women with a society approved environment for unmarried women.
The settlement houses helped created another reform that women also played an important role in: the job as a social worker. A growing number of professional training for social workers began to appear in the leading universities.
The late 1800's a huge growth in the number of people in administrative and professional tasks. Industries needed managers and workers, cities needed commercial, legal services, educational services ect., and new technology needed scientists and engineers, who needed instructors to teach them. By the turn of the century those who preformed these services became what historians called the new middle class.
The new middle class placed high value on education and individual accomplishment. In the early 1900's the millions of members created organizations to protect their position in society. A skilled teacher had no way to separate themselves from the amateurs. So as demand for professional services increased so did the pressers to reform.
The medical proffesion was one of the first to respond. In 1901 the American Medical Association became a national society. By 1920 2/3 of american doctors were members. The AMA called for strict scientific standards for admission. State governments started to pass new laws that stated that all physicians needed a license.
Several schools popped up because of the growth of demand for a professional education. Schools for law and business popped up and expanded.
Businessmen also created the National Association of Manufactures in 1895. Farmers created the National Farm Bureau Federation, which was designed to spread scientific farming methods.
While removing untrained people, the admission requirements protected people already in the profession for major competition and gave status to the professional level. Some used it to exclude blacks, women, and immigrants while others used it to keep the supply down and demand high.
Progressives involved in humanitarian efforts valued knowledge and expertise. they thought every problem could be solved scientifically. Many thought only experts could create the order and stability America needed.
Some spoke of a new civilization that the expertise of scientists and engineers could bear the problems of the economy and society.
Social scientist Thorstein Veblen proposed a new economic system where the power would rest with highly trained engineers. Only they could understand the "machine process" of modern society.
Women were excluded from most of the emerging professions because of prejudice and custom. But still many middle class women, particularly coming from college, entered professional careers anyway.
Few women became doctors, lawyers, and scientists. Several major medical schools admitted women. But most turned to socially accepted jobs like settlement houses, social workers, and most important teaching.
in the late 20th century 2/3s of grammar teachers were women. 90% of all professional women were teachers. For black women segregated schools in the south created a big market for african american teachers.
Women also dominated the nursing field since the Civil War. By the early 1900s it was adopting professional standards.
Women were getting advanced degrees from mainy male institutions like the University of Chicago, MIT, and Columbia. Women also were finding professional opportunities in the new and expanding women colleges.
The "new woman" phenomenon was a product of social and economic that changed the public and private world. By the end of the 1800's almost all income producing activities had been industrialized. Also children started going to school earlier and spending more time there. For wives and mothers who didn't work, housework wasn't as time consuming as before because of running water, electricity, and home appliances.
Family size was declining and the people were living long. This meant that women spent less time with younger children and lived longer after the children had grown up.
Some educated women shunned marriage because they thought that it was the only way they could play the roles they envisioned in the public world.. The single women were the most prominent reformers. jane Addams In settlement houses, frances Willard in the temperance movment, and Anna Howard Shaw in the suffrage movment were just a few.
Some of them lived alone. Some lived with other women, often in long-term relationships(sometimes romantic). They were called Boston Marriages.
Divorce rate rose rapidly in the late 19th century. It went from 1 divorce for every 21 marriages in 1880 to 1 in every 9 in 1916.
The women's clubs was one of the most visible signs of increasing public roles for women.
Women's clubs began as cultural organizations to provide an outlet of intellectual energies for middle and upper class women. They clubs grew also as time went by into the 1900's.
By the early 1900s the clubs became more concerned with contributing to social betterment. Because many women were from wealthy some organizations had funds at their disposal. The clubs were nonpartisan because women could not vote, this meant that it was hard to dismiss them.
Black women sometimes joined the clubs, but most clubs excluded blacks. So african americans made their own clubs. They created the National Association of Colored Women. Some black clubs took positions on things close to their hearts like lynching.
The women's club movement rarely raised challenges to existing assumptions on the proper role of women in society. The clubs allowed women to find space in the public world without challenging the male-dominating order.
the clubs mostly did uncontroversial work, like planting trees. Club women were also important in the passing of laws with child and women labor, government inspection of workplaces, and many others. they were instrumental in pussing the womens pentsions to widowed or abandoned mothers- which became part of Social Security system.
Clubwomen formed alliances with other women's groups, like the Women's Trade Union League. The WTUL was committed to convincing women to joining unions. WTUL women worked on behalf of protective legislation for women, raised money to support strikes, marched on picket lines, and bailed women out of jail.
Women's suffrage was the biggest reform in history.
Through the late 1800's many suffrage advocates presented their views in terms of "natural rights". They argued that women should have the same rights as men.
Women's suffrage challenged the view of society that said a female's main job was to be a mother or wife.
The antisuffrage movement was dominated by men but supported by many women. They thought that suffrage was linked to looseness and child neglect.
In the beginning of the 1900's the movement was winning great victories and was better organized. Membership grew dramatically up to over 2 million by 1917.
Some argued that women would bring beneficial experiences to public life.
women would help the temperance movement.
If blacks could vote so should well born women.
Washington was the first state to grant suffrage in 1910.
1920 suffrage was granted.
some feminist were not happy but they had no support.
Attacks on party dominance had been frequent.
These assaults had some success, most states adopted the secret ballot which hoped to decrease the power of parties over voters.
Many believed the impact of party rule was most damaging in cities. After the Civil War "respectable" citizens avoided politics. But at the end of the 1800s, activist were taking interest in government.
They Challenged party bosses, businessmen who benefited from bosses, and working people.
Reformers developed several techneques to reform city governments:
Commission Plan= the mayor & council were replaced by an elected, nonpartisan commission.
City-Manager Plan= elected officials hired an outside expert to take charge of government.
In urban areas compromises were made like the election of mayors, nonpartisan, or move them to years when no presidential election took place.
reformers tried to strengthen the mayor at the cost of the city council.
Tom Johnson was a reform mayor of Cleveland, he fought to lower streetcar fares and impose municipal ownership on certain utilities.
Many progressives turned to state government for reform, reformers counted ways to circumvent the boss controlled legislature by increasing the electorate's power by;
initiative- allowed reformers to circumvent state legislatures by submitting new legislation to voters.
referendum- provided a method by which actions of the legislature could be returned to the electorate for approval.
direct primary- attempt to take the selection of candidates away from the bosses and give it to the people.
recall- gave voters the right to remove a public official by a special vote. recall needed a petition and a certain number of votes.
By 1915 every state had primary election for some offices.
other reform measures tried to clean up legislature by banning lobbying, banned campaign money from corporations, and banned free passes for railroads for officials. workman's compensation was created and pensions for widows with dependent children.
reform efforts were most effective in states that elected reformers into offices.
Robert La Follette was the best state level reformer. he was governor in Wisconsin and did many things like regulation of railroads and utilities and passing laws to regulate the workplace and helping injured workers with compensation.
Reformers didn't eliminate parties from political life, but the did help decrease it.
Voter turnout steadily dropped because of lack of party loyalty.
Interest groups started to replace the parties. new organizations grew outside the party system; labor organizations, farm lobbies, and many others.
Social workers, settlement houses, and women's clubs learned to operate as interest groups and advance their demands.
Some unions played important roles in the reform movement. Between 1911 & 1913 pressure from labor groups helped pass laws for child labor, workman's compensation law, and a limit on work hours for women in California and many other states.
One result of the assault is that the change in party organization, they sometimes allowed machines to be vehicles for reform.
Tammany Hall used its power to improve working conditions. In 1911 a terrible fire killed 146 workers in the Triangle Shirtwaist Co., most were women. Tammany Hall privately pushed for improvement of the industrial workplace.
In response a group of laws on strict regulation on factories owners and est. effective ways for enforcing them.
The west produced some of the most notable progressive leaders of the time like Hiram Johnson, William Borah, and others. Most were senators at somepoint.
The most important target for the west was the federal gov, because the federal gov. had more power in the west because it handled states dispute.
The federal gov. had a lot of control over the lands and reasources of the west. They also gave grants for railroad and water projects.
Most of the western growth was due to the government.
African Americans faced greater obstacles than any other group in challenging their opressed status. Many Blacks worked for self improvement, and didn't challenge whites(Booker Washington's method). W.E.B. Du Bois lead a counterattack; he advocated that talented blacks should strive for education and professional work. Bois encouraged African Americans to fight for their civil rights and not wait for them.
In 1905, Du Bois and others launched the Niagra movement, and which would eventually form the Nation Assciation for the advancement of Colored People. They NAACP had important victories such as in Guinn vs U.S. which declared the granfather clause unconctitutional.
All reformers agreed that the growing immigration population had created social problems, but people were disagreeing about how to solve the problem. Some thought that the best approach was to help new residents adapt to American society, while others was to limit the flow of new arrivals New theories claimed the introduction of immigrants into American society was polluting the nation's racial stock.
To support the theory, eugenics were discussed(eugenics= the science of altering the reproductive process of plants and animals to create hybrids). The Cargnie foundation funded a effort to use eugenics with humans. This was an effort to grade races according to their genetic qualities. Eugenics spread the belief that immigration was contribution to the multiplication of the unfit.
A federal commission was formed to solve the issue, they claimed immigration should be retricted by nationality. This movement was unable to take off becuase employers and immigrants blocked its passage. But after world war 1, the nativist tide was gaining tide.
Many progressives considered the elimination of alcohol from American lfie a necessary step in restoring society. Scare wages disapeared in saloons, drunkeness spawned violence within urban families, and employees missed work from drunkeness. Progressives saw it as a way to attack city bosses(saloons were a central institution of the urban machine).
Temperance advocates formed the Women's Christian Temperance Union; they demanded complete prohibition of the sale and manufacture of alcohol. Many states passed prohibition laws, but temperance advocates wanted a national law. In 1917, progressive advocates of prohibition passed a consitutional amendment ambodying their demands(18th).
Between 1900 and 1914, the socialist party of America gained considerable strength. It was heavily supported by immigrant communities and by the prodestant farmers in the south and midwest. The socialist all agreed structural changes in the economy were necessary. Some favored militant direct action, these people formed the Industrial workers of the world(iww) or the wobblies. The wobblies advocated for a single union for all workers, abolition of the 'wage slave' system, and they rejected political action in strikes. The wobblies were believed to have been responsible for dynimating railroads and other acts of terror. But after the IWW held a strike for the timber industry , the government passed laws to outlaw the wobblies. Those who favored a peaceful change, dominated the socialist party. After the socialists refused to support the war, the organization declined in popularity.
Reformers hoped to restore the economy to a more human scale; they wanted the government to break up the largest combinations and enforce a balance betweeen the need for bigness and the need for competition. This viewpoint came from Louis Brandeis who opposed bigness because it was ineffiecent and a threat to freedom. 'Bigness' limited the power of individuals to control their destinites and encouraged abuses of power. Progressives believed that the government should guard against the abuses of power by large institutions, and should distingush between good and bad trusts and take down bad
The nationalists believed that the industrial economy had to have some form of coordination. To some it meant that buisnesses had to learn new ways of cooperation and self-regulation, while others thought the government had to play a more active role in regulating and planning economic life. Roosevelt supported government intervention, and he would become a symbol of reform impulse at the national level.
#3 What were the hallmarks of of those profession?
The hallmark of the women's jobs are that they are helping jobs and considered slightly domestic. Since they were slightly domestic society accepted the jobs like teaching, social work, an settlement houses. Nursing was also a helping job that the women took over in the civil war and was therefore accepted by society.
#4 Clubs reflection on women's influence and restrictions.
The women's clubs showed that women had influence on things like city improvement, job conditions, and treatment of women and children. The restrictions was that they could not vote to push their ideas, they were a women's club and were not allowed to touch the non society accepted battles in politics.
6. What happened to the women's movement after suffrage was granted?
Well, nothing really. Some feminist were unhappy and said that the 19th amendment was not enough. They argued that they needed a constitutional amendment that provided clear legal protection for their rights and not allow discrimination because of sex. But they didn't have support because most were satisfied with the amendment.
#8 What was the relationship of the weakening of political parties and the rise of interest groups?
As the political parties started to weaken due to lower voter turn out interest parties grew. Interest groups fitted the demand for a group of people. Some were for the better treatment of workers or trade associations representing businesses. Settlement houses and women's clubs even learned to operate as interest groups to advance their demands.
# 9 What role did organized labor play in progressive reform efforts?
Organized labor role was that child labor laws, workman's compensation laws, and a limitation on working hours for women in several states.
10. What was the impact of the Triangle on reform
The incident caused shockwaves over New York City. The public outcryed over what was clearly a preventable tragedy. It brought a renewed sense of urgency to the labor movement and to other groups working to improve women's and immigrants' rights in the workplace. In New York State, the fire safety reforms for factories came right away: The legislature appointed investigative commissions to examine factories statewide, and 30 ordinances in New York City were enacted to enforce fire prevention measures.
Why was progressivism so strong in Western States
Socialism is an economic system where the government runs and controls the production resources collectively owned by society to achieve its common good. Progressivism ,on the other hand, is a political philosophy that seeks to raise the standard of living of the average member of society in order to achieve a positive social change.
. Socialism wants to achieve the common good of society through public management and control of production resources while progressivism seeks to achieve public good by gradually raising the standard of living of the average member of society.
2. Socialists seek to abolish capitalism because it exploits the working class while progressives want to employ capitalism in expediting the accumulation of wealth for the benefit of the masses.
3. Socialism advocates a planned economy while progressivism supports a mixed economy.
The difference between Progressives and socialists
1 Ida Tarbell- a muckraker who wrote the History of Standard Oil(she exposed the standard oil trust).
4 Carrie Chapman Catt- a women suffrage leader who campaigned for the 19th amendment, and she created the National Americam Woman Suffrage association.
6 Equal rights amendment- a proposed amendment to the U.S. constitution that guarenteed equal rights under the law for Americans regardless of their sex
10 The talented tenth- an influencial essay written by W.E.B. Du Bois and published in September 1903. The talented tenth was used to describe the likelihood of one in ten black men becoming leaders of their race.
11 The anti-saloon league- an organization which lobbied for the prohibtion of alcohol in the U.S.
13 Eugene Debs- the American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial workers of the world, and several times the candidate of the socialist party of America for president .
In the west, the federal government exercised considerable authority there. The federal government exercised power over the lands and resources of the western states and provided substantial subsidies to the region in the form of land grants and water projects. Most of the western growth was due to the government, so the western people were eager for change.