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The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
Transcript of The Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
of the Atom
Quantum Numbers and Orbitals
Werner Heisenberg and the uncertainty principle
De Broglie Vs Bohr
The quantum number, n, for a
hydrogen atom in its ground state is 1
principal quantum number, n
n: describes an orbital’s
energy level and size
orbital-shape quantum number l
l: describes an orbital’s shape
magnetic quantum number, m
The greatest number of electrons that is possible in any energy level is 2n
integer that ranges in value from 0 to (n − 1)
Each value for l is given a letter: s, p, d, or f.
• The l = 0 orbital has the letter s
• The l = 1 orbital has the letter p
• The l = 2 orbital has the letter d
• The l = 3 orbital has the letter f
View what a full set of orbitals look like
sublevel with n = 3 and l = 1 is called the 3p sublevel
sublevel with n = 3 and l = 2 is called?
is an integer with values ranging
from −l to +l, including 0
(a) If n = 3, what are the allowed values for l and m , and what is the total number of orbitals in this energy level?
(b) What are the possible values for ml if n = 5 and l = 1? What kind of orbital is described by these quantum numbers? How many orbitals can be described by these quantum numbers?
If n = 3, l may be either 0, 1, or 2.
To find ml from l:
If l = 0, m = 0
If l = 1, m may be −1, 0, +1
If l = 2, m may be −2, −1, 0, +1, +2
Since there are a total of 9 possible values for ml, there are 9 orbitals
when n = 3.
l = 1, which describes a p orbital
Since n = 5, the quantum numbers represent a 5p orbital.
To find ml from l:
If l = 1, ml may be −1, 0, +1
Therefore, there are 3 possible 5p orbitals.
spin quantum number,ms, and is given values of either 1/2 or 1/2.
spin quantum number, m
sublevel with n = 2 and l = 2 is called?
(does not exist)