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Deep Sea Angler Fish

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by

Seline May

on 25 March 2014

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Transcript of Deep Sea Angler Fish

How

it
Contributes
The Deep Sea Anglerfish contributes to the diversity of life by maintaining the amount of crustaceans and teleost fish by consuming them. If the Deep Sea Angler fish were to go extinct. They would be an increase species of that it eats, without the threat of an anglerfish, its population would start increasing and it would start consuming large amounts of food that many other species depend on. Those species would go hungry and possibly endangered.

The Deep Sea Anglerfish also contributes to us because they allow us to gain more research about the bathypelagic zone, the many other organisms that live there, and how they are able to adapt to this environment. The anglerfish is also a very interesting species that many scientist would like to learn more about, they are unique and one-of-a-kind it would be a shame if they were to never exist. When the anglerfish dies, its corpse provides food for other organisms as well.

Around the world such as Europe, North America, Africa and the far East, the Deep Sea Angler fish is eaten, it is also considered a delicacy in Asia, especially in Japan and Korea. Its tail is most commonly consumed and is said to have a similar texture to lobster tail.


Habitat
Scientific Classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Lophiiformes
Family: Melanocetidae
Genus: Melanocetus
Species: Melanocetus Johnsonii
Food and Characteristics
The Deep Sea Anglerfish has a body quite similar to a basketball. Its head is huge with an enormous crescent-shaped mouth that are filled with sharp translucent teeth. The female humpback anglerfish is about an average size of 20 cm while the male anglerfish is the average size of 3 cm. They are generally dark gray to a dark brown colour.
The anglerfish can extend its jaw and stomach to an outstanding size. This can allow it to swallow prey twice the size of its body. This adaptation makes it able to stock up in food for times of need, since food can be scarce in the deep sea.

The deep sea anglerfish eats mainly two categories of prey, crustaceans and teleost fish. The most frequent prey are pandalid shrimp. They are near the top of the food chain and are mostly predator than prey. as mentioned before the spine protruding above the fish’s eyes are used as a lure to catch fish.

The Deep Sea Anglerfish isn’t much of a swimmer you can say it somewhat wobbles in the water. They are know to remain motionless when it waves its lure back and forth. Its skin is adapted to reflect blue light and since most light emitted from luminous creatures are blue, the deep sea anglerfish can be nearly invisible from other deep sea animals.


How it Got its Name
Reproductive System
Sadly, only the female anglerfish has this mechanism while the males don’t. Believe it or not, the male anglerfish is the complete opposite of the female. While the female anglerfish is huge, vicious and capable the male anglerfish is small weak and hungry his whole life. Besides that, a male anglerfish has great eyesight and sense of smell but those are only used to sniff out a female anglerfish and to recognize the light on her head. He only lives solely to mate.

The male has evolved into a parasitic mate. When he manages to find a female, he bites into her skin and releases an enzyme or fluid that digests the skin of his mouth and her body, fusing them together. He then takes nutrients from her bloodstream to feed himself. He then starts merging into the female even more that he loses his eyes, then organs and eventually die. All that would be left is his sperm which the female angler fish can use later on whenever she wants to impregnate herself. Some species can have up to eight males attached to them.

The eggs of an anglerfish consist of a thin sheet of transparent gelatinous material 25 cm wide and greater than 9 metres long.The eggs in this sheet are in a single layer, each in its own cavity. Once hatched, the larvae swim to the surface and feed on plankton. As they mature, they return to the depths below.

When a male anglerfish matures his digestive system will start to degenerate so he is forced to find a female for nutrients or he’ll die of starvation.

Individuals are rare to capture so encounters with a male and female are usually rare as well. It’s unconfirmed to whether they are endangered or not because they live so deep in the sea.

Deep Sea Angler Fish
Melanocetus Johnsonii
This creature can possibly be one of the ugliest animals on the planet and it lives in what can easily be Earth’s most inhospitable habitat, the dark lonely bottom of the sea

The

Angler
fish

Pelagic meaning of or related to the sea
There are more than 200 species of anglerfish and most of them can be found in the murky depths of the Atlantic and Antarctic oceans. The deep sea angler fish, also known as the humpback anglerfish and the common black devil is one of the most popular species known worldwide. It can also be seen in the movie 'Finding Nemo'

They live from a depth of 2000-3000 m in the bathypelagic zone. This zone is also known as the midnight zone. Sunlight doesn’t reach this zone meaning there can be no primary production so this habitat contains no plants. The average temperature hovers at about 39 °F or 4 °C and is extremely hard to live in because of the crushing water pressure and lack of nutrients.

The fish here have adapted to this environment and have become very energy efficient. The fish have slow metabolic rates for conserving energy, weak muscles, soft skin and slimy bodies.

In 1864 this species of anglerfish was classified by Gunther .A
Since the habitat of the Deep Sea Anglerfish has no light at all. Most of the fish there are luminous, including the anglerfish. In fact, the most distinctive feature of an anglerfish would be the bright light that dangles at the top of its head. Which is also how an angler fish gets its name. The anglerfish uses this light as a fishing rod to lure fish towards it, when it get close enough, it swallows the prey whole.

The word 'angler' means someone who fishes with a rod. This 'rod' is an elongated dorsal spine which the anglerfish can control however it wants. At the tip of the spine is flesh, which gets its glow from bacteria that enters the pores to gain nutrients and protection from the host, while the fish has the ability to gain the bacterial bioluminescence. This is called photophore.



T
h
r
e
a
t
s
The Deep Sea Anglerfish isn’t known to be endangered because it lives so deep in the sea but pollution and global warming are threats towards this species

Pollution
Since the oceans are so vast and deep, it was assumed that no matter how much trash and chemicals we were to dump into the sea, the effects would be negligible. There was even a catchphrase for this which was “The solution to pollution is dilution.”

It turns out that this policy has made our once beautiful (In some places it still is) ocean into a huge dirty junkyard and putting out ocean ecosystem to the brink of collapse.

Pollutants in the ocean include garbage, toxic waste, vehicle and boating pollution, and oils. More than 2000 m below sea surface there is relatively isolated and stable ecosystems, although the pollution doesn’t affect the anglerfish directly, it still poses as a threat.

It becomes difficult for marine life to breath with all the chemicals and trash which can cause a quick death. Fish can also become poisoned when they eat these pollutants, instead of dying, when another fish eats it, it’ll become poisoned as well. This applies with the anglerfish, where it can become poisoned from the organisms it eats and die.

The chemicals also cause an overgrowth in toxic algae which can kill aquatic animals and oil pollution can affect the growth and development of ocean organisms and cause damage towards their nervous system.

Global
Warming
The rise and increase of the earth’s average atmospheric temperature is a threat towards this species and all of marine life. The rising air temperature causes water to become less dense and it separates from a cold nutrient-fill layer below. This impact organisms who depend on this nutrients for survival. Phytoplankton and algae use photosynthesis for nutrient fulfillment. Carbon dioxide is converted into organic carbon and oxygen that feeds almost every organism. Phytoplankton is more likely to thrive in cooler temperatures and since nutrients are blocked from traveling upward, the plants are unable to supply marine life with necessary organic carbon and oxygen, due to the ocean warming, the plants slowly vanish and so will the fish that eat it and including the angler fish that eats those fish. The habitat of the anglerfish will also change as well due global warming and the anglerfish might not be able to adapt to this new environment.

We are the main cause of this because we polluted the oceans. We also used fossil fuels that release carbon to the atmosphere, that causes an overflow of greenhouse gases. Industrial waste and cars also release carbon. This only makes the weather warmer and the use of air conditioners only make it worse.


How

Can

We

Help?
To help with Global Warming and Pollution we can do these things
-Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Try reducing the amount of waste you use and look for recyclable and reusable ones instead.
-Change Your Light Bulb
Instead of using incandescent light bulbs, try using fluorescent ones. Not only will you help the environment, you’ll save money as well!
-Drive Smart
Instead of driving, try walking or biking if possible. Thus also provides great exercise for your body and keeps not only you, but the world healthy.
-Plant a Tree
Start digging, because trees absorb carbon and give off oxygen, they are part of the atmospheric exchange cycle on Earth but there aren’t enough trees to counter the amount of carbon caused by our human activities
-Switch it Off
Save electricity and use less by turning the lights off when you leave the room and use them only when you need to. If its a nice day, set your electronic down and spend some time outside instead to realize the world and many creatures that we’re harming.

W
e
r
e

Y
o
u

L
i
s
t
e
n
i
n
g
?
What is the average temperature of the anglerfish's habitat?
39 °F or 4 °C
What is the scientific name of the Deep Sea Anglerfish?
Melanocetus Johnsonii
Which zone does the anglerfish live in
Bathypelalgic zone
What is the light producing organ called on the angler fish?
Photophore
What are the two catergories of prey it mainly eats?
Crustaceans & Teleost Fish
What are the two main threats towards this species?
Pollution & Global Warming
Full transcript