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History of Printing

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Adam Parker

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of History of Printing

HISTORY OF PRINTING A presentation by Alex, Tim, Dennis, and Adam One of the first printed books was the Diamond Sutra. It was printed on May 11, 686. Moveable type is a method of print that uses individual letters made of metal pieces. Each letter can be moved around on a press and are able to be reused for new documents. Images can be used, but are less common than letters. Before the time of the printing press, Scribes would write out books by hand. This method of creating books was a long, tiring process and only the chruch and nobility were able to own these books. To create a single book, it could take a scribe over a year. Along with moveable type, Gutenberg also invented a device that was able to efficiently transfer image area from his blocks of moveable type and on to a sheet of paper. This device was the first printing press. The very first printing presses shared many of their design assets with other types of presses such as wine and oil presses. This allowed for an easy and quick way to print large amounts of copies during a press run, making books faster to make. Woodblock Printing is the process of carving out text or images onto a block of wood and applying to it and transferring the image area onto a surface. The ink will be applied to the raised areas only. The first known use of moveable type was in 1040 by Chinese inventor Bi Sheng. His moveable type was made out of porcelain, but later type in Korea was made out of metal. Both of these methods were rarely used because of the massive amount of Chinese characters needed. In Europe, Johannes Gutenberg had started to work on his own form of moveable type independably around 1439. Being a goldsmith by trade, he was able to use lead for his type faces. Because there were less Latin characters than Chinese characters, creating a complete set of letters was an easier task. Gutenberg also invented a type of oil based ink that would better adhere to his metal type pieces. The first book to be printed off of Gutenberg's printing press was known as the Gutenberg Bibleand was first printed in the 1450's This was a Bible that was written in Latin, with each page having 42 lines of text(giving it the nickname of 42 line bible). Each Bible was highly detailed with blackletter text and hand finished details and binding. The exact number of Bibles produced is unknown but is estimated to be around 158-180 copies. There are currently 48 remaining copies, 21 of which are complete. It is considered to be one of the most valuable books in the world After Gutenberg had printed his first book off of his printing press in the 1450's, the popularity of his printing press technology soared. Soon, printing press showed up all over Europe in places such as Germany, Italy, France, the Netherlands, and Spain. By 1500, over 1000 press were in European cities. It was estimated that by this time, there were 20 million copies being made. Many of the first Print shops were in Germany, but soon Italy would surpass Germany in both quality and quantity. Because of the invention of the printing press, information was more widely spread. Books were easier to make and libraries at the time were able to a greater number of books for less money. Soon, the average person could have access to books that they wouldn't have before. Because of this, literacy rates increased all around Europe. The printing press is considered a major factor in starting the Renaissance period in Europe. The printing press also sparked a scientific revolution as scientists at time time could now document their findings in journals and share them with other scientists. During the next few centuries, the printing process had changed very little, however, the design, materials, and performance of the printing press was tweaked and fixed. By 1800, British scientist Lord Stanhope had created a press made completely out of cast iron, reducing the force needed to print by 90% as well as increasing the total image area possible. In 1843, a man named Richard March Hoe had invented the first rotary printing press. In rotary printing presses, the images that will be printed are curved around a cylinder that rotates constantly during the run. This type of press removed to need constant need to apply pressure manually on the press allowing for even faster speeds. Rotary presses are still used today in the form of offset lithography presses. Printing in Canada first started in Halifax on March 23, 1752 when a small print shop on Grafton Street began printing Canada's first newspaper. This began when a man named John Bushell partnered up with a man named Bartholomew Green to run a print shop in Boston. While waiting for his new press to arrive Halifax, Green had suddenly passed away. Upon learning of Green's death, Bushell had decided to go to Halifax and establish himself as the young colonies first printer using the press Green had purchased. The first thing that was printed at his shop was the" Halifax Gazette". The "Halifax Gazette" started off as a two page newspaper with two columns per page. Very little of the news was local, with any local content being advertisements. Latter on the paper started to cover more local topics such as marriages, deaths, and occasionally births. During its history, the paper had changed names, until 1867 when it became the "Nova Scotia Royal Gazette". Under this new name, the newspaper became the official government publication for proclamations and legal notices. The "Nova Scotia Royal Gazette" still exists today and celebrated 250 years in 2002. The last remaining copy of the original "Halifax Gazette" resides in the Massachusetts Historical Society in Boston. Another method of printing came in the form of screen printing. In screen printing, a type of stencil is used that is able to block ink. Areas in the stencil that allow ink to pass through make up the image area that will be transferred to the surface being printed on. The Japanese used this method of printing by taking banana leaves and creating designs in the leafs that would leave the desired impression. In 1907, Samuel Simon developed the first modern form of screen printing in England. Screen Printing is useful because it allows many non paper surfaces such as road signs, decals, fabrics, and plastics to be printed on. In the 1960's, the very first photocopiers were introduced into the market by Xerox, a photo paper company founded in Rochester in 1906. The very first photocopier was called the Xerox 914 and was able to copy pages up to 9 x 14 inches using electro photography. These printers used toner, a type of power like ink.While the device itself became popular, the original photocopiers were known to catch on fire easily and it was not until later that this problem was fixed. In 1969, Xerox had created the very first laser printer. The first laser printer was a modified xerographic copier were a laser would directly scan onto the printers photoreceptor. The first commercial laser printer was the "IBM model" 3800 in 1976. This printer was used for high volume documents and was so large that it took up a whole room.
The first laser printer designed for individual computer use was the Xerox Star 8010 in 1981. Despite its innovation, the printers extreme price of 17 ,000 dollars made it so only a few industries used them. In 1984, the first mass market printer was the HP laserJet, after the rise of home computers. By 1970, the first dot matrix printers came to the market. A dot Matrix printer uses a small printing head that moves back and forth like a type writer and strikes an ink soaked ribbon on to the page in a distinct dot shape. Because of this, each letter is made out of dot shapes. In the 1970's to the 1980's, dot matrix printers were the most common printers used with home computers because of their versatility and price. By the 1990's, dot matrix printers were phased out by the reduction in price of laser printers and other new technologies. Today, the most common type of home printer are inkjet printers. This type of technology was first developed in 1950's and came onto the market by the late 1970's. Inkjet printers use a type liquid ink that is sprayed from a nozzle and on to the paper. Inkjet printers can be contentious or drop on demand and can use three different types of inks which include solvent inks, UV curable inks, and dye sublimation inks. Inkjet is commonly used in photo centers and are able to print on surfaces such as vinyl and plastics. In the years after its invention, the design of offset presses were improved. Offset lithography remained a top choice for rotary presses. The use of letter presses dropped as offset was more efficient. Improvements to basic design of offset presses were made. In 1901, Ira Washington Rubel of New Jersey discovered that by printing from the rubber sheet rather than metal resulted in a clearer image. Latter on, press could print four color process jobs in a single pass and print more pages per hour than ever before. Today, offset presses are used for very large print jobs such as newspapers, catalogs, and books. Printing is the Process of transferring images or text to a surface such as paper using ink for the purpose of creating identical copies of a printed page. Printed items may include books, printed artworks, newspapers, flyers and brochures, labels.

Printed started around 220 AD in China with wood block printing, improved latter on in China by 1040 with moveable type, innovated by German inventor Johannes Gutenberg with the creation of the first printing press in 1439, and spread around the world by the 1500's. By the 1800's new press technologies were invented such as rotary press and offset lithography that improved the printing process. Finally, by the 20th century, advanced technologies such as photocopiers, laser printers, dot matrix, and Inkjet technologies. Printings has come a long way since the days of Woodblock Printing in China or Gutenberg's first printing press. The invention of the printing press started a print revolution that changed the world for the better. Today it is common to see printer in the house hold setting or to read books on many subjects and genres, but before the printing press, these things were harder to come by. Because of the printing process, we are able to read our favorite novels, find out what his happening around the world, and create many forms of printed media. We should be thankful for the printing process, because with out it, we would not have many of the things that we use today. THANKS FOR LISTENING We hope you learned a lot about print history today and we hope that you learn more about printing in near future.
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