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The Reproductive System

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Pouriya Sadeghi

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of The Reproductive System

Pouriya and Mostafa
The Reproductive System

Introduction To The Reproductive System
The Reproductive system is one of the most important systems within the human body. The reproductive system is the only human system that does not support the life of it's host nor determine their health. This system is a structural and physiological network whose purpose is the creation of an offspring through sexual intercourse (fertilization of an egg with sperm). This system interacts with three other major organ systems within the body. The Circulatory system is the first system that works with the reproductive system. It works with this system because the blood vessels carry nourishment to the fetus and carry oxygen throughout our body. It also assists in the male process that cause their hormones to grow. The second system that work with the reproductive system is the nervous system. The nervous system regulates the reproductive system’s process. The nervous system is greatly involved in the body’s homeostasis (which is the tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions). The third system that the reproductive system works with is the endocrine system. The endocrine system pertains to hormones that aid the body’s internal activities. The endocrine system also plays a very important role in maintaining the body’s homeostasis. Without these systems, the reproductive system could not work. Human reproduction is sexual_meaning that both a male and a female are required to produce an offspring.
Male Reproductive System
The main task of the male reproductive system is to deliver sex hormones that produce sperm and to transport it from the male to the female. Unlike the female reproductive system most of the male reproductive system is located outside the body. Some of these major structures are the penis, scrotum, and the testicles.
Major Male Reproductive Organs
Testicles:
Are oval shaped organs that lie within the scrotum. They are responsible for making testosterone-the main male hormone.

Penis:
The main function of the penis is to form a route for the passage of the sperm to the eggs for fertilization.
The spermatic ducts and glands:
The vas-deferens carries the sperm to the abdominal cavity and then to the ejaculatory duct, the remaining sperm within the ejaculatory duct are disposed of after a couple of weeks. The prostate surrounds the ejaculatory duct and closes the bladder passage within ejaculation.
Seminal Vesicles:
Are located on either side of the bladder and contribute to 60% of the seminal fluid created. This fluid's purpose is to carry and nourish the sperm.
Female Reproductive
System
The main tasks of the female reproductive system are to produce hormones, develop ova, receive sperm, and promote fertilization and the growth of an offspring. Most of the female reproductive organ are located inside the body. These organs are: the ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and the vagina.
Major Female Reproductive Organs
Vagina:
The vagina is a muscular tube about 5 in (12.7 cm) long. A mucous membrane lines and moistens the vagina, during sexual intercourse this acts as a lubricator. And during child birth the vagina expands to make way for the offspring.
Cervix:
Is a cylinder shaped neck of tissue that connects the vagina to the uterus. It is made of cartilage covered by smooth and moist tissue about an inch across.
Uterus:
The uterus also referred to as the womb is a muscular pear-shaped organ in the female pelvis that is designed to nurture and protect a growing fetus. It's size has an average of 3 in (7.6 cm) long by 2 in (5 cm) wide. During pregnancy the uterus expands with the growing embryo and fetus.


Ovaries:
Are oval shaped organs connected to the body of the uterus by an ovarian ligament that holds the ovaries in place. They produce hormones and develop ova. Unlike sperm the ova are not produced daily but in a monthly cycle.
Fallopia Tubes:
Are responsible for the delivery of the egg from to ovary to the uterus.
Most Common Sexually Transmitted Infections
Gonorrhea:
A bacterial infection of the genitals, anus, or throat. An estimated 700,000 people in the U.S. obtain gonorrhea every year.the majority of people obtaining this infection are women at the age 15 to 24 and men at the age 20 to 24. Most people infected have no symptoms but those who do feel discomfort and a burning sensation in the are infected. It can be obtained through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. It can also be passed on from mother to child during birth.
Hepatitis B:
A viral infection affecting the liver – HBV can be acute (mild illness lasting for a short time) or chronic (a serious life-long illness). An estimated 38,000 people are infected with HBV every year mostly through sexual intercourse. Up to 1.4 million people are already infected with chronic HBV. Many do not have any symptoms but in some cases people can experience tiredness, aches, nausea & vomiting, loss of appetite, darkening of urine, tenderness in the stomach, or yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes. symptoms of acute HBV are usually going to appear 1 to 6 months after exposure. Symptoms of chronic HBV can take up to 30 years to appear, this infection can be obtained or spread Through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. It can also be spread through childbirth if the baby does not get vaccinated against HBV; sharing contaminated needles or razors; or exposure to the blood, bodily fluids (such as semen) or saliva of an infected person.

Herpes:
A viral infection of the genital areas. It may also infect the mouth and lips. At least 50 million people are already infected with herpes, or about one in six people. An estimated 1 million new infections happen every year. Most people have no symptoms. Herpes 1 typically causes cold sores and fever blisters in or around the mouth; Herpes 2 typically causes genital sores or blisters. But both can cause sores in either area. Herpes is spread through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. It can also be passed through skin-to-skin sexual contact, kissing, and rarely, from mother to child during childbirth.


HIV/Aids:
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that weakens or potentially destroys the immune system and eventually causes AIDS if left untreated, this is usually the case in some developing countries. About 50,000 new infections happen every year, with an estimated 1.2 million people already living with HIV. Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms and feel healthy. Symptoms don’t usually develop until a person’s immune system has been weakened. The symptoms people experience are usually related to infections and cancers they get due to a weakened immune system. Through vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Also by sharing contaminated needles; and from mother to the child during pregnancy or breast-feeding. The chance of getting it through kissing is very low. HIV can be treated but cannot be completely cured due to the rapid growth and the fact of no showing symptoms.
Treatments For Sexually Transmitted Infections
Fun Facts
Gonorrhea:
In the case of an oral infection oral antibiotics can aid in curing the infection. It is best that both partners are treated at the same time to prevent passing the infection back and forth between each other. Both partners should withdraw from sex until the infection is gone in both people. Persons with gonorrhea should be tested for other STIs because it may be possible for one STI to lead to another. If gonorrhea is left untreated a woman can obtain pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy (which a fetus can’t survive). Men may also develop epididymitis, a painful condition, which can lead to infertility
Hepatitis B:
Most often, acute HBV is treated with rest, eating well, and lots of fluids. But on the other hand chronic HBV is treated through close monitoring by a doctor and anti-retroviral medications. Vaccines are the most recommended way for preventing HBV. When left untreated this infection may lead to other STIs including HIV. With chronic hepatitis B ones liver can swell and later lead to cancer of the liver. Babies who are born with mothers with Hepetitis B are at a greater risk of developing chronic HBV.


Herpes:
There is no cure currently available for herpes. But there are treatments that can reduce the amount of pain and irritation caused by the outbreaks, and can help prevent the spread of the infection to future partners. If left untreated herpes can cause the development of other STIs including HIV. it is very unlikely for the infection to be passed on from mother to child, but if this were the case the child could be at a great amount of risk.
HIV/AIDS:
No cure has been found for the treatment of HIV and AIDS. Early diagnosis and treatments can help an individual live a longer and healthier life. Antiretroviral treatment is an example of one of the most commonly used treatments that can slow the progression of HIV disease and delay the commencement of AIDS. Early diagnosis & treatment can improve a person’s chances of living a longer, healthier life.
All the infections can be prevented by the use of protection and abstinence, and the practice of safe sex.
an average person burns about 200 calories during 30 minutes of active sexual intercourse.
in a fetus finger prints are acquired at the age of 3 months.
human testes can produce 10 million sperm cells daily. this is enough to repopulate the earth in 6 months.
during pregnancy the uterus will expand more than 500times its normal size.
the first known contraceptive was crocodile feces used by the egyptians in 2000 B.C.
THANK YOU
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