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Personality

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by

Alexandra Hauser

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of Personality

Personality
Three Parts of Personality
Iceberg Theory
Conscious
What we are currently focused on
Three Levels of Awareness
Eros
- life instincts
Thanatos
- death instincts
Believed Freud placed too much importance on sexuality - broke off of him
Neo-Freudians
Questioned levels of consciousness
Believed there was personal and collective unconscious

Collective unconscious
- universal memories of the common human past
- composed of shadow, anima, and animus

Carl Jung
Childhood experiences drive our lives later on
Alfred Adler
Disagreed with male dominant views
Anxiety must be overcome through social environment

Karen Horney
TAT - tells stories - shown a picture
Inkblot Test - shown a blot

Used to infer personality characteristics
Open to interpretation
Personality Tests
Balance Freud's humanism
Evaluating
Everyone has need of achieve self actualization
Reach potential
Human motivation is based off of satisfaction

Abraham Maslow
Emphasizes positive and uniquely human aspects of personality

Individuals seek destiny, growth, and self actualization
Actions guided by
Humanistic Approaches to Personality
What is personality?
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
Psychoanalytic Theory
emphasizes unconscious process, the role of childhood experiences, and unconscious conflicts
Sigmund Freud
personalities arise because of attempts to resolve conflicts between unconscious sexual and aggressive impulses and societal demands to restrain these impulses.
Personality consists of three systems
Bases work off of hysterics
Practiced free association - say whatever you want
ID
Eros and Thanatos
Governed by inborn drives
Obeys pleasure principle

Ego
Reality principle
Acts as mediator - reason
Cope with world requirements
Superego
Acquired from experience
Our conscious
Follow an idealistic principle

Preconscious
Inactive but accessible thoughts and memories
Unconscious
Contains memories, urges, and conflicts that are beyond awareness
Influence every day life
Dreams
- paths to the unconscious
Manifest content - what actually happens
Latent content - hidden meaning
Behavior
happens when our id, ego, and superego interact
Psychosexual Stages
Oral
Birth to 12 months
Activities involving mouth
(Biting, sucking)
Anal
One to three years
Bowel movements
Phallic
Three to five years
Genitalia
Oedipus & Electra complex
Penis & Castration anexiety
Latency
Six years to puberty
Sexuality is dormant
Lull
Genital
Adult stage - you remain in it
Sexual urges are born again
Fixations
Results from being over or under gratified in a stage
Can't process into next stage
Shows up as adult tendency

Defense Mechanisms
Protect people from anxiety
Repression: shutting out unpleasant thoughts and memories
Denial: refusing to accept the ego-altering truth
Projection: attributing one's unacceptable thoughts/feelings to someone else
Reaction formation: behaving opposite of how you actually feel because it is seen as inappropriate
Regression: returning to an immature, comforting behavior
Rationalization: justifying unacceptable behavior, feelings, or emotions
Sublimation: channeling frustrations towards a different goal
Developed extroversion and introversion
We all strive for superiority
Individual psychology
Inferiority complex
Superiority complex
Compensation and over compensation
Problems of reliability and validity
Trait Theory
People's characteristics of patter
Common v Personal
Cardinal v Central v Secondary
Personality Tests
Self Report Inventories
MMPI
Compare self results to group results

Projective Tests

Factor Analysis Approach
Analyze correlation between data
Discover common denominators
Two Personality Theory
Extraversion v Introversion
Stability v Instability
Big 5 Personality
Conscientiousness
Agreeableness
Neuroticism
Openness
Extroversion
Social Cognitive Approaches
Interactions between persons and their social context
Personal Control
Internal Locus
You can control your own fate
External Locus
An outside force choses your fate
Spotlight Effect
Feeling that others are analyzing you negatively
Self Esteem
Feeling of high or low self worth
Self Serving Bias
Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorable
SELF
Culture & Self
Collectivist
Prioritize goals of group
Individualist
Prioritize yourself over group
Full transcript