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How Food Revolutionised the First World

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Ron Wesley

on 9 June 2014

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Transcript of How Food Revolutionised the First World

How Food Revolutionised the First World
September 13, 1921
Fast Foods Chains
From 1906 to the 1920s most people were uncertain about eating ground beef because a book call The Jungle has exposed the poor sanitary practices of the meat industry during that time.
But cook, Walter A. Anderson, and insurance agent, Edgar Waldo "Billy" A. Ingram, wanted to change the perception of the meat industry. So in...
They founded the

White Castle was founded in Wichita, Kansas.
Through the founders use of white porcelain enamel exteriors, stainless steel interiors, stainless uniforms, friendly staff, and restaurant name, the founders has swayed the public perception of their meat establishment was clean and pristine. This gained them allot of popularity allowing them to expand in 1922 into the American Midwest and then into all of America. Along with White Castle's success, many imitators tried to copy the White Castle's signature castle architecture or make variations to the White Castle name in order to promote their own business.
Walter Anderson is also noted to be the inventor of the rounded modern hamburger bun and the inventor of the kitchen assembly line pioneering the stereotypical fast food chain cooking style which would be used among all of the fast food chains to come.
December 12, 1948
Years after White Castle had pioneered the art of the fast food chain, brothers Maurice and Richard McDonald had been working in the restaurant industry for years when they discovered that hamburgers was a very profitable product.
So in...
They Created McDonald
The official McDonald cooperation was founded in San Bernandino, California.
Throughout the McDonald's culinary career, they have always kept their food affordable and very cheap such that 1 of their burgers was worth $0.1 (This is still considered to be cheap back then).
In order to increase the efficiency of their restaurant, they adopted the White Castle, assembly line cooking style.
In order to capture the attention of the public, the McDonalds abandoned their first establishment and went to work to build a new restaurant. With the help of architect, Stanley Clark Meston, the McDonald brothers created an irregular shaped restaurant with red and white ceramic tiles, stainless steel framing, vibrant red, yellow, and green neon light, and the McDonald iconic Golden Arch.
Ray Kroc came into the McDonalds lives
With their new attractive restaurant, the McDonald restaurant grew in popularity and was able to start expanding around California and even in Phoenix. But this was only the beginning of the McDonald domination of America. So in..
At the time, the McDonald facility in San Bernadino used 8 Multimixer Milkshake machine. This attracted a Multimixer Milkshake salesman name Ray Kroc who saw that this many Multimixer Milkshake machine in 1 facility a phenomenon. Then he met with the McDonald brothers and changed to life of their business.
As Ray saw so many milkshake machines in 1 place, he also saw great potential in this restaurant to span all of America.
When Ray first met with the MacDonald brothers, he wanted to franchise the McDonald conquest but the brothers were sceptical about the idea of expanding across America. He eventually won them out by suggesting to take the major responsibilities in setting up their facilities across America.
Ray Kroc ran the McDonald cooperation first advertisement campaign called "Look for the Golden Arches"
As Ray Kroc helped McDonalds expand across America, he also help them gain popularity. So in...
After this advertisement campaign, McDonalds gained a lot of popularity but this wasn't enough. Now they also wanted to capture the youth audience. So in...
Ronald McDonald was born
Though one may ask, "How did fast food chains change society or demonstrate a change in first world society lifestyle" well:

White castle single handedly made the concept of ground beef not disgusting to the public.
McDonald would reflect how America as a capitalist society are willing to throw away wholesome food in order to save money in food.
Fast food chains would demonstrate the change in people's lifestyles because as the economy boom, more people will have jobs, thus being more busy and having less time. McDonald's American conquest began in the booming 50s thus displaying that many working people at that time were too busy to cook their own food. Yet society get more busy in the 60s as McDonalds now needs to appeal to the children audience being taken to fast foods by not only the working people but the busy family people.
Plastic soda bottle
Malts shops
TV Dinners
Genetically Modified Crops
Prior the 20th century people preserved their food using snow and ice obtained during winter, from the mountains, or from Scandinavia (for Europeans).
This snow or ice would have been collected and stored in privately owned ice houses (outside), cellars, and later on families stored ice in ice boxes (inside)
Although versions of actual refrigerators, they were never used to store food neither were they ever exposed to the public, as they were only scientific experiment, until...
The first domestic refrigerator was made
1927 domestic refrigerator
The first domestic refrigerator was first created in Fort Wayne, Indiana by Fred W. Wolf by attaching an early refrigerator unit onto of his ice boxer.
Although the domestic refrigerator was invented in 1913, it was only being commercialized in the...
During this time, the concept of a ice less food preserver was exciting so sales were good. The initial models were hazardous as they used sulfur dioxide or methyl formate. Then freon was introduced as a refrigerator cooling agent which boosted sales in the...
Though refrigerators were only mass produced about after the second World War end, going into the ...
If one may ask, "How did domestic refrigerators change society or demonstrate a change in first world society 's lifestyle" well:

The refrigerator allowed the average family to store and preserve their food without the need for ice. Therefore families wouldn't need to worry about their ice supply lasting since they can keep their food cool all year round. Thus slowly eliminating the need of the ice trade.
The refrigerator has changed the diet of the average family as families now are less reliant on canned or salted food since they can now easily store local produce and even 'exotic' produce.
The refrigerator also demonstrates the grand post-WWII money boom. In the 1950s refrigerators were being mass produced because almost every household, who arose to the middle class, was now able to afford a refrigerator. Thus demonstrating the transition of the lower class lifestyle to the middle class lifestyle.
It gives way to the preservation of frozen food.
Quick Freezing
Prior to the 1920s, frozen food existed as food frozen in very cold places like Russia, which is then shipped out around the world
Though food was normal frozen slowly or naturally, causing ice crystals to form in the food. When the food is thawed, the crystal melts away along with the taste.
Birdseye released his "flash frozen" foods to the American public
But in

theorem was created
While working as a fur trader in Labrador, Clarence Birdseye was ice fishing with some Inuits when he discovered that once the fish is pulled out of the water, the fish froze immediately. He brought his frozen fish home a few month later, ate it, and was really satisfied with the quality of his fish. There he theorized that frozen food won't lose their taste if the food quickly frozen rather than frozen over a long period of time.
After he discovery, Birdseye created 2 methods in order to freeze his food. Both of these methods required for the food to be sealed before it is frozen with either evaporated ammonia or a copper chloride solution.
With his quick frozen food and the recent release of the refrigerator, Birdseye was able to put together a company, which would revolutionise the world. In...
Though one may ask, "How did frozen food change society or reflect society demonstrate a change in first world society" well:

It enabled people to own frozen food which would still taste 'fresh' after a long period of time.
It gave way to TV dinners.
Frozen Foods
The TV dinner was introduced
As Birdseye's frozen foods became popular in the 1950s due to the commonality of the refrigerator, Swanson Foods, a large canned food & frozen poultry company decided to utilize Birdseye's methods to create something revolutionary. In...
Though one may ask, "How did TV dinners change society or demonstrate a change society" well:

TV dinners demonstrate a change in society as it caters to families whom have 2 income sources and are too busy to prepare dinners or would cater to those whom just have a rushed lifestyle. This would demonstrate how the lifestyle of the new middle class is becoming very busy and stressed
TV dinners became a commodity in the 1950s because, women were becoming less housebound as they are now working. These working women tend to be either women who retained their jobs from WWII, nurses, or teachers. Thus the lifestyle of women is changing as they become more liberated from the home.
Also TV dinners gave everyone in society a sense of individualism as children and men no longer had at for the women to make the food as they can make their own food and eat their food at anytime they want. Eventually reducing the need for families to eat together at the table or even reducing the need for a dinner table.
The food of these TV dinners were held in held in aluminum trays which resemble airline trays.
The food within these TV dinners tend contain some meat and some vegetable, all frozen using Birdseye's technique.
Although people didn't own freezer in the TV dinner's early year, it was still a big hit as it was used as fast food.
From post WWII-
Late 1950s
The Malt shops, soda shop, or soda fountain industry boomed as it became the teens most popular hangout spot. Nowadays these malt shops would contain a jukebox playing the latest rock 'n' roll and a pinball machine in order to entice the youth. But the malt shop domination began to dwindle in the late 1950s because once-small fast food restaurants became chain and began to assimilate the malt shop or drive them out of business with their commercial power and greater capability (McDonald had 8 milkshake machines). Also soda shops began to fall because the automotive culture was overthrowing the youth interest in listening to music in the shop. Plus soda companies began to bottle their sodas, thus removing the need for soda services.
Created the soda fountains
In 1807, the soda machine was first introduced in order to replicate mineral water, which was thought to cure diseases. As sodas were thought to be medicinal and drug stores were central gathering spaces, an alliance between the two in...
As a result of the soda fountains in drug stores, soda shops opened acting a 'bar'. These soda shops were praised upon by the Temperance Movement as these shops encouraged alcohol drinkers to drink non-alcoholic sodas. During the...
During the Prohibition of the 1920s, soda shops helped alter alcoholics into soda drinker and maneuver social hangout spots from bars into these soda shops. More men began to appreciate sodas during this time so much that soda shops began to regularly reserve seats for men during lunch hours and the whole image of sodas began manly as it became the hangout spot of the working man.
The soda industry flourished during this time yet...
These soda shops acted as diners which also served milkshakes, sodas, and malts. Such facilities would be both appealing to the women in the shopping district and the some of the men working business districts.
If one were to ask, "How did soda shop change society or reflect society demonstrate a change in first world society" well:

In the early 20th century, these shops changed a portion of the male society from alcoholics into soda drinker, which is appreciated by the anti-alcoholic Temperance Movement.
During the prohibition these shops demonstrated the male movement from alcohol to soda as a portion of the male society began treating soda shops as their former bars and saloons.
From post-WWII to the late 1950s, the soda shops also demonstrated the rapid increase of the middles class as families can afford for teenagers to frequently hangout in these soda shops
Even toward the end of the 1950s, when the soda shop industry is collapsing, soda shops displays a change in society as the middle class are now wealthy enough for the teenager to immerse themselves into the automotive culture, causing them to abandon the soda shops.
January 1947
Microwaves became commercially available
The first commercial microwave unit Raytheon first released was the Radarange. Though this microwave cost $52809 (Today), it was 1.8m tall, and it weighed 340kg.
Percy Spenser

discovered the heating effects of microwave
Percy Spenser, an engineer in the military contractor company, Raytheon, had discovered the heating effects of microwaves by accident during work. When standing near an active radar, Spenser noticed that the candy bar in his pocket had melted. He went to investigate this phenomenon by placing corn kernels and an egg within the proximity of microwave. The corn kernels popped and the egg exploded. After further research, Spenser discovered if microwaves were fed into a metal confinement, the food inside would quickly increase in temperature.
The now-conventional small microwave becomes popular
Due their price an overall inconvenience, the first Radarange microwaves didn't sell very well until they made some design changes. So in...
If one were to ask, "How did microwaves change society or reflect society demonstrate a change in first world society" well:

Microwave changed society such that it enabled families to quickly cook food in a matter of minutes in order to accommodate busy lifestyles.
Thermos GmbH made their commercial models
Utilizing Dewar's technology, 2 German glassblowers formed Thermos GmbH since they fund 'vacuum flask' a unappealing name and they chose to call their product Thermos because it sounded like therme (Greek for hot).
Prior to the 20th century containers were not well insulated
In 1892, English scientist, Sir James Dewar invented the vacuum flask, which is a flask that retains insulation by creating a near vacuum, which prevents any convection
The Thermos becoming very popular
For the next 5 years, the Thermos Company would become more popular and would receive rewards as their technology assisted famous explorer in Alaska, Arctic, and the Congo. It also proved to be useful for keeping food hot in the air, as it remained warm for Count Zeppelin's balloon rides.
Also the Thermos proved to be useful during the Second World War as 10000-12000 Thermos containers went along with the 1000 bomber on each raid. Resulting in...
After the war the Thermoses became very popular due to the familiarity of the product during the war as it has become the universal container for food and beverages.
If one may ask, "How did the Thermoses change society well:

The Thermos enable people the insulated food that society couldn't have prior to the 1900s. Also it reliance has been proven as Thermos container can retain the temperature of the food in Tropical places, cold places, and even in the air.
Nathaniel Wyeth began inventing the soda bottle
After the fall of the soda shops, the soft drink were either contained in glass bottles or aluminum cans. But in...
Wyeth was a chemical engineer, whom at this time began to wonder if sodas would be able to be contained in plastic bottles. To test out this theory, he placed a detergent container, filled with soda, into his fridge. As a result the detergent container swelled up. This inspired him to create a polyethylene-terephthalate bottle, which was both elastic and strong.
After inventing his new bottle, Wyeth's cheaper and more resilient design begins replace the glass bottle as it rises in the soda industry in the...
If one were to ask, "How did plastic soda bottles change or reflect society demonstrate a change in first world society" well:
The plastic soda bottles made it easier for companies to deliver the sodas, as these new bottles are cheaper than the previous glass bottles.
Plastic bottles affected the environmental aspect of our society, as plastic bottles over the year contribute to the pollution of the environment.
The creation of the plastic bottles would also reflect the society of the 60s and the 70s a there was a reform for the use of plastic products.
The first genetically modified plant as made
It was a tobacco plant made to be resistant to antibiotics.
The herbicide resistant tobacco plants were first field tested in U.S.A. & France
China commercializes genetically modified crops for the first time. The first ones being a virus-resistant tobacco plant
U.S.A. approves genetically modified crops for sale for the first time. The first ones being a tomato plant which ages slowly
Prior to the 1980s, produce was completely organic and had no resistance to natural causes until...
If one may ask, "How did genetically modified crops change society" well:
Genetically modified crops made it more convenient for farmer to produce the food as the foods are now more resistant to viruses, pesticides, and non-biological stresses.
Genetically modified crops are also convenient to the customers as it has a long shelf life and it produces more nutrients.
Now that genetically modified crops are so successful and are so widely used, they are apart of all of our diets.

In 1921 Walter A. Anderson and Edgar Waldo A. Ingram created the White Castle fast food restaurant in order to change the public perspective of the meat industry since the meat industry at that time was perceived to be dirty. Their restaurant was successful in changing the public perception to the meat industry because their very clean establishment and their jolly workers gave the sense of cleanliness. This didn't only change the public perception, but it made them and fast-food very popular.

Years later in 1948, Maurice and Richard McDonald started their first McDonald fat food restaurant. It only became popular when the McDonald brother decided to create a McDonalds with an alluring architecture. This aloud the restaurant to expand a little. Although the McDonald restaurant was very popular, McDonald only begin to soar across America in 1954 when Ray Kroc came into their lives. Ray Kroc came was a Multimixer Milkshake machine sales man, astound by how many of his machines McDonalds was using he. He saw potential in McDonald restaurants. Although the McDonald brother were hesitant about the concept of national expansion, Kroc convince them to expand. Through the expansion of McDonalds, the advertising of McDonald, and the creation of Ronald McDonald, McDonalds evolved from a simple restaurant into a national chain.

As fast food chains evolve in the years, it implies that in the future fast food restaurants will only grow into the chains if the restaurant produces tasty food and the restaurant architecture is revolutionary compare to the other restaurants. This is evident as White Castle, with their revolutionary clean castle design, and McDonalds, with their irregular design covered in neon, grew in popularity because they were able to initially attract customers using their alluring architecture and then serve them their good food. The evolution of McDonalds has also implies that in the future successful fast food chains will adapt to the market. This is evident when McDonalds gained more support from families when McDonalds began appealing to the youth with their creation of Ronald McDonalds. This is even evident today as the top fast food chains remains successful by appealing to the people's demand for healthier foods.

The first domestic refrigerator was made in 1913 in Fort Wayne, Indiana by Fred W. Wolf by attaching a refrigerating unit to his ice box. His invention only became commercialised in the 1920s. It was popular but it was also hazardous as it used chemicals like sulfur dioxide and methyl formate to refrigerate the food. The refrigerator became even more popular in the 1930s where freon replaced the other cooling agents since freon was a lot more safer. As the middle class began to arise from the ashes of the second World War, the refrigerator became significantly more popular as everyone now had the money to buy refrigerators.

As the popularity of refrigerator rose due to the rise of the middle class in the 1950s, it implies that in the future certain technology will become more popular when they become affordable to the middle class.

In an ice fishing trip in Labrador Clarence Birdseye's fish frozen instantly after removing it out of the water. He ate that fish a year later in 1924 and he found the fish to taste surprisingly good. There he created the quick freezing theorem which basically states that frozen food won't lose their taste if the food quickly frozen rather than frozen over a long period of time. After he discovery, Birdseye created 2 methods in order to freeze his food. Both of these methods required for the food to be sealed before it is frozen with either evaporated ammonia or a copper chloride solution. His frozen food products were released in 1929.

As Birdseye decided to freeze food in order to retain the taste of the food, it implies that people of the future will attempt to better preservation the taste and quality of food. This already evident as people today are trying to improve the preservation of food through vacuum sealing.

Using Birdseye's freezing technique, Swanson Foods created the TV dinner in 1954. It was a aluminum tray which resemble an airline tray and held meat and vegetables.

This product was popular in the 1950s because in this time the concept of 2 income home was a new thing with the women working in the job she kept from the war and the man working in a new job. This product provided the working women relief as she didn't have to cook for her family. Instead she could just buy the TV dinner for her own family to cook. This implies that as 2 income homes become more common in the future, preserved food that can be cooked the common kid will become more popular as the kid can become self reliant when it comes down to food.

Malt shops are the same thing as soda fountains and soda shops

The first soda shop was made in 1903. They tend to serve all of the things a diner would except they also served milkshakes, sodas, and malts. Soda shop has been on good terms with Temperance movement, an anti-alcohol movement, because these facilities helped steer men away from alcohol. Though soda shop became really popular in the 1950s because the middle class can now afford their children to hangout. The kids of the middle class tend to hangout in malts shops because the places provided kids with food, rock n roll, and entertainment like pinball machines. As cars became more affordable to families, the automotive culture overthrew the need for soda shops as kids now just wants to strut their cars. But it wasn't only the automotive culture that caused the fall of the soda shop, the soda industries began to heavily bottle up their products and full grown fast food chains began assimilating these smaller businesses.

The fall of the soda shop implies that businesses needs to adapt to the need of society

Nathaniel Wyeth started to create a plastic bottle that will be resilient enough to contain carbonated drink as of 1967. His finished product was made out of polyethylene-terephthalate, which made his bottle both flexible and strong. This bottle began to arise in the 1970s, replacing the glass bottle.

As this bottle began to become popular during the reform for plastic, it implies that in the future, the material of the bottles will be based on the demand on the public. This is evident today, as plastic bottles has changed it composition in order to cater to the demand for recyclable, eco-friendly products.

In 1945, Percy Spenser discovered the heating effects of microwaves after a radar melted his candy bar. He performed experiments to confirm his theories. Then he discovers that the heating effect of microwave is amplified if the wave are enclosed in a metal box, thus cooking food quickly. In January 1947, Raytheon, the company Spenser works for, released the first commercial microwave, the Radarange. It wasn't very popular because these models were cumbersome and expensive until 1967 when the design changed into the conventional smaller microwave.

This implies that in the future, that defrosting of food will become quicker as the microwave was a new piece of technology, which could cook food much more quickly than an oven.

In 1904, 2 German glassblower founded Thermos GmbH and utilized the vacuum flask, made by Sir James Dewar, for the purpose of food. These Thermoses became popular as good reports of the Thermos flowed in from the Arctic, the Congo, and even from air raiders from World War II. After the war the Thermoses became very popular due to the familiarity of the product during the war as it has become the universal container for food and beverages.

As the Thermos' vacuum technique proved to be very successful in containing the heat of food, it could imply that in the future, vacuum technology will be utilized for even more extensive food storage purposes than today.

The first genetically modified plant, a tobacco plant resistant to antibiotics, was made in 1982. In 1987, genetically modified crop plants were frist test on field in America and in France. China began commercialising genetically modified crop plants in 1992. U.S.A. deems it safe to commercialise genetically modified crop plants in 1994.

This implies that in the future, crop genes will be artificially modified to sustain in certain areas in the world, thus allowing farmers to produce more food for the people. Although the plants will be easier to grow for the farmers, they will have to pay more money for the seeds provided by the GMO cooperates since their business is based around the sale of the seeds. Plus the scientists could sterilize the plant with their biological skills. Also this would imply for a future of controversy because people will be eating produce created out of gene splicing which is already a topic of controversy. But for many citizens, GM produce would also imply a future of convenience because there wouldn't be any food shortage, due to their built-in resistances, and the food itself will last longer allowing the food to be transported to grocery stores and to your home without dying for a long time.
Patterns of Change in the food industry
Over the years food companies are trying to make the process of obtaining food more convenient for families.
Cooking has become more faster over the years with newer way to quickly cook food.
The industry caters to the most current need of the public whether it is the need for hangouts or the need for quicker dinners.
Throughout the 20th century, companies has been trying to improve methods to keep food fresh whether it is freezing the food or altering it's genetic complexion.
Future of the Food Industry
For the future of the food industry I believe that one day food will be created mechanically at your home whether it is 3D printed or a machine that processes your ingredients into food. I believe that this will be the case because throughout the 20th century the food industries making easier for people to obtain and cook food and a machine that would make meals for you at home would be very convenient. Things like frozen foods, microwaves, and TV dinners has all been made to help families cook food very quickly while fast food chains are convenient there if you need to obtain food very quickly. With 3D printers now capable of printing food and factory machines which could turn ingredient into food, this belief of a household ingredient-to-food machine could very well be apart of a plausible future.
I am also in belief of a future where rather and chemical based refrigerator, refrigerators preserve food through the use of vacuums. Throughout time, it was always a goal to preserve ingredients whether people would dry food, quick freeze foods, refrigerate foods or even modify it's genetic code but food tends to perish no matter what whether will expire or mould. As demonstrated with Thermos, vacuum seal technology is an excellent way to regulate temperature. But in vacuumed areas, temperature can also be altered through the pressurization and depressurization of the contained area. So a freezer for example that would a vacuum would be able to freeze food if the pressure within the vacuum is taken away. With actually vacuum chambers today, we can actually preserve food by removing all of the particles in the air, thus eliminating microorganisms that can create mould. If vacuum chambers were modified for the purposes of food preservation, it could very well be our next refrigerator. Also if produce were genetically modified to sustain pressurized situations they can also be further preserved in these vacuum fridges due to unsurvivable conditions for bacteria. Thus allowing produce to last for weeks, months, and maybe years.
By looking back in the 20th century, we can see the patterns that the food industry follows in order to cater to the ever-busy society. By identifying such patterns in the food industries, we can predict a future were food becomes even faster and were food lasts longer. As result new inventions and new food business will be create to accommodate for the future to come.
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