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Oceans

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Cassie Miolene

on 29 October 2013

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Transcript of Oceans

Oceans
Zones
The ocean is composed of many different zones, each home to their own unique flora and fauna.
Humans
Shipping Ports
Food
Fish
Lobster
Crab
Whale
Mass Prodcution
Transportation
CO2 Consumption
Regulation of Temperature
Moon Cycles
Recent Climate changes
Cassie Miolene, Ali Ambrosecchio, Claire Miolene, & Sarah Whaley
Covers about 70% of the earth's surface
Home to the largest mountain range in the world, the Mid-ocean Ridge (40,400 mi long)
There are more artifacts and reminants of history in the ocean than all of the world's museums combined
94% of life on earth is aquatic
Has under water hot springs that shoot water at high temperatures that boast a profusion of life from tall tube worms ro giant clams
Testing the Water
Abyssal
Ranges from 6,600 feet to 20,000 feet below the surface. The zone is defined mainly by its extremely uniform environmental conditions
Benthic
This zone is the lowest level of a body of water. The organisms living in it are called Benthos. They are adapted to live on the substrate (bottom), and are considered dominant creatures in their habitat.
Coastal
Includes the beach, estuaries, the adjacent land draining directly into the coastal waters, and the offshore waters, usually out to the edge of the continental shelf
Littoral/Intertidal
The area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide. Organisms in the intertidal zone are adapted to an environment of harsh extremes because of the constantly changing tides.
Hydrothermal Vents
Hydrothermal Vents occurs when seawater meets hot magma. They are the result of seawater percolating down through fissures in the ocean crust.
Seawater may reach temperatures over 700 degrees Fahrenheit
Forms in volcanically active areas

Species Diversity
“To be frank, we’re not entirely sure whether rainforests or the oceans have the greatest biodiversity of all biomes, as we’re a very long way from discovering all their species,” says staff scientist Bill Laurance of the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
The epipelagic zone stretches from the surface down to 200 meters and is home to the greatest biodiversity in the sea, largely because of the availability of sunlight that enables photosynthetic organisms to thrive. Both marine plants and animals are found here.
From 200-1,000 m is the mesopelagic zone, a twilight zone where some light filters through but does not reach a level of brightness necessary for photosynthesis to occur.
The bathypelagic zone is from 1,000-4,000 m and completely dark, therefore plants are nonexistent.
Bioluminescent organisms, some of the strangest marine creatures of the deep, live here, and the same goes for the abyssopelagic and hadopelagic zone.
Animals
Flounder
Genus
Hippoglossoides
Species
Hippoglossoides dubius
Flat figure
Uses camouflage and flat figure to blend with floor of the ocean and uses eyes on one side to seek prey

Dolphin
Genus
Delphinus
Species
Delpinus delphis
Dorsal fins and long nose (rostrum)
Dolphins help save oxygen while they dive underwater by their heart beats being slower during a dive and their blood is diverted from other parts of the body to their heart, lungs, and brain.
Sea Turtle
Genus
Chelonia
Species
Chelonia Midas
Forelimbs are long, paddle-like flippers for swimming against strong currents

Plants
Genus: Bacteriastrum
Species: : Bacteriastrum hyalinum

Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (drift)
Generate most of the oxygen that we breath
Diatoms, Dinoflagelates, Coccolithophorids and Micro-Flagellates

Phytoplankton
Bullkelp
Genus: Nereocustis
Speicies: Nereocystis luetkeana
Large seaweeds that grow in underwater "kelp forests in shallow oceans.
Features:
"Anchors" called holdfasts that grip onto rocky substrates
Pneumatocysts, a gas bubble that keeps it afloat.

Seagrass
Genus: Zostera
Species:Zostera marina

Perennial
Grass-like but with longer and broader leaves occurs in estuaries high up in the intertidal on shelly mud

Avg. temo of 39°F
(range: 28.4°F in polar regions to 96.8°F at the Equator)
Hydrothermal vents reach 750+°F but don't boil due to pressure
Climate
Precipitation on average 40 inches per year
estimated 95k cubic miles of rain water over ocean
Variations occur in ocean salinity due to amount of precipitation in a certain area of land
If there is more evaporation than precipitation then the salinity increases
Bibliography
Bibliography:

• "King of the Jungle: Biodiversity | USA TODAY College." King of the Jungle: Biodiversity | USA TODAY College. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Coastal Zones." Coastal Zones. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Vulcanoctopus Hydrothermalis — Details." Encyclopedia of Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "10 Horrible Deep Sea Creatures - Oddee.com (sea Monsters, Sea Animals...)." Oddee RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Ocean Water: Temperature." Oceanography. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Temperature of Ocean Water." - Windows to the Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Hydrothermal Vents." : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Pelagic Biome." Biology Guides, Biodiversity and Free Science Videos. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
• "Marine Zones." MarineBio Home ~ Marine Biology, Ocean Life Conservation, Sea Creatures, Biodiversity, Oceans Research... N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2013.
Human Impacts." <i>Human Impacts</i>. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013. &lt;http://people.chem.duke.edu/~jds/cruise_chem/oceans/human.html&gt;.

Country Profile - Japan
Japan has a population of about 127.6 million people
Japan has the third largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and is the worlds second largest developed economy. It is also the worlds largest creditor nation. However like many parts of the world, the economy is on a path of steep decline. Their economy is also highly reliant on the fishing and whaling industry, although it is becoming harder to over hunt because of wildlife protection organizations.
Japan faces many social issues like a aging society, sinking birthrate, radiation, unpopular government, and increase in rates of crime and child abuse.
Japan is a constitional monarchy parliamentary democracy, with a dominant party of the Liberal Democratic Party which has held power for more than 50 years. The emperor has very limited power, the legislature called Kokkai makes decisions by a two thirds majority vote, and the Judicial branch is also the highest court in the land.
Japan has many environmental issues including pollution, waste management, global warming, nuclear power, fishery and whaling, urban planning, and electronic waste management.
Dependency:
Impact
Over-fishing
Pollution
Sewage and trash
Storm Drain and River Run-off
Oil Spills
Pelagic
The open ocean
Subzones
Epipelagic
Mesopelagic
Bathypelagic
Abyssopelagic
Hadopelagic zone
Cetaceans (whale) and large fish such as bluefin tuna
Progressively warmer, has absorbed 80% of heat added to earths system
Rising greenhouse gasses causes increased atmospheric warming (melting of the poles)
Rising sea levels (expansion due to warming)
Recent Changes
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