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Maggie Walsh

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Oil

JM Oil Refinery
easily combustible
easily transports
very plentiful
can generate large amounts of electricity
Oil refineries are the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissions
Burning oil at power plants produces nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, methane, and mercury compounds.
Energy intensity is a measure of the energy efficiency of a nation's economy. It is calculated as units of energy per unit of GDP
In 1997: the fuel intensity of oil and gas extraction was about 27 to 1.
Extraction companies spent about 3.7% of their total revenues on fuel inputs
84% of the expenditures for input fuel went to natural gas. This statistic implies that gas was less expensive than oil products in 1997
world oil reserves stand at 1238 billion barrels
The United States possesses 2.6% of the worlds oil reserves while it consumes 24% of the world's oil production.
the Middle East has 61% of the world's oil reserves. Africa has 9.6% and the Russian Federation has 6.4%. The two countries sharing borders with the United States, Mexico and Canada, together have only 3.2%.
world production is running low
Saudi Arabia is the only state to claim they can produce more
the average annual production rate is less than 700 million barrels per year.
:Texas City, Texas.
(city outside of Houston)

History of oil
: Millions of years ago organic matter in the ocean broke down and sank to the ocean floor. Over a period of time the matter is under intense heat and goes through a chemical reaction called pyrolysis which from oil over time.

Environmental impact
: chemicals are released by oil refineries in extremely high amounts (often millions of pounds per year) and are highly toxic.It has a toxic effect close to the oil refineries , which is seen by the absence of all or most species .
The Current state of oil
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Energy Intensity
Advantages and Disadvantages of Oil
when it burns it releases carbon dioxide
when refine, releases toxic chemicals
oil spills
mining causes irreversible environmental damage
Tar Sands
: costs average $11 a barrel worldwide…. more expensive in gulf/Texas
: commonly use pipelines
The cost to transport a barrel of petroleum products from Houston to the New York harbor is about $1
does not change depending on gas prices
To refine:
Estimated $0.30 to $0.60 a gallon
mean cost is about $82,000
How much does it cost to produce oil overall?
typical major oil company (ex. Exxon):
From drilling to getting to the people- average actual production cost is
$14 to $19/bbl
depends on a lot of variables.

Use of Oil compared to other nations
Consumption and Use
Global: As of 2011, approximately 89 million barrels of oil and liquid fuels were consumed per day worldwide. That works out to nearly 32 billion barrels a year.
The United States consumed a total of 6.87 billion barrels (18.83 million barrels per day) in 2011
Top producing country is Saudi Arabia
150 in the US alone
about 700 globally
Why we chose this type of energy facility?
near water
in Texas
oil needs to be refined before it can be used so this is a necessary step
there is no such thing as an oil power plant
How much oil is really left?

There are many different theories pertaining to the amount of oil we have left
Petroleum is what creates oil and gasoline
formed from the remains of phytoplankton that died 50 million to 150 million years ago
Deposits are found in locations with porous sedimentary rocks are capped by nonporous rocks
The petroleum is less dense than this porous rock and migrates to the top of it
petroleum producers must drill wells into a deposit and extract the petroleum with pumps.
Oil Formation
Crude oil: The petroleum removed from the ground
tar and asphalt, gasoline, diesel, and kerosene
these compound are created at
oil refineries

Costs are measured in barrels
One barrel= 42 gallons of oil
United States uses more petroleum than any other fuel
roughly 816 million gallons of petroleum products a day
Worldwide: 3.7 billion gallons a day
22 % of consumption = US
Gas- for 1/2 that amount.
Most use is for transportation
What else is it used for?
plastics, lubricants, raw materials for pharmaceuticals, and cleaning solvents.
Oil Spills
airplanes, and small boats and personal watercraft, including deliberate and accidental releases of waste oil.
Occur when oil is extracted from under the ocean
leaks and spillage
2003 research:
about 85% percent of the oil came from runoff from land and rivers
U.S. Consumption: 19.15 mil bbl/day
U.S. Proven Reserves: 20.68 billion bbl
20,680,000,000 / 19,150,000 = 1079.9 days or 2.96 years
Disregarding Growth!
Based on CIA World Factbook Numbers

How Does an oil refinery work?
Crude oil contains many different hydrocarbons
Separate the different types of hyrdocarbons
different chain lengths have different boiling points
Heat Crude oil up and let vaporize and then condense the vapor
Fractional Distillation
can break longer chains into shorter ones. This allows a refinery to turn diesel fuel into gasoline depending on the demand for gasoline.
Fractional Distillation
Heat two or more substances
Mixture boils
Vapor enters long column and rises
When a substance in the vapor reaches a height where the temperature of the column is equal to that substance's boiling point, it will condense to form a liquid
Chemical processing/conversion.
Full transcript