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Olivia Cortese

on 4 November 2011

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Transcript of Eisenhower

Dwight D. Eisenhower "A sound nation is built of individuals sound in body and mind and spirit. Government dares not ignore the individual citizen." DOMESTIC The Threat of Communism During Eisenhower's campaign tour in 1952, he spent much of it with Senator Joesph McCarthy, who's tyrannical outcries of communism were surfacing. While Eisenhower said that he agreed with McCarthey's goals, he did not agree with his methods. During this time in 1952, McCarthy won re-election and his outcries became more vicious and widespread. Although Eisenhower was quoted on many occasions as not wanting to' "get in the gutter with that guy" his admnistration succeeded in bringing him down once he started making threats against the army. civil rights “I believe as long as we allow conditions to exist that make for second-class citizens, we are making of ourselves less than first-class citizens.” During Eisenhower's second term, one of the main issues that Eisenhower faces was in terms of segregation and race riots. Eisenhower achieved Congressional passage of the first civil rights legislation in the 82 years following Reconstruction. In the beginning, the Senate refused to pass the bill, which included both voting rights and a provision authorizing the Attorney General to protect all civil rights. Eventually, Congress approved the Civil Rights Act of 1957 without overall civil rights protection. This was a much weaker law than what Eisenhower had intented and desired. In 1960, Eisenhower was successful in getting Congress to pass an additional voting rights legislation. Eisenhower implemented the integration of the U.S. military forces. Although President Truman issued Executive Order 9981 (1948) to desegregate the military services, his administration had limited success . Eisenhower knew intimately the reality of racial intolerance in the military. He commanded compliance from subordinates and was able to overcome the deeply rooted racial institutions in the military establishment. By October 30, 1954, the last racially segregated unit in the armed forces had been abolished, and all federally controlled schools for military dependent children had been desegregated. Eisenhower sent members of the 101st Airborne Division to carry out the mandate of the U.S. Supreme Court, when Orval Faubus of Arkansas openly defied a federal court order to integrate Little Rock Central High, an all-white high school. This act, the first time since Reconstruction that federal troops were deployed to a former Confederate state, was condemned by many at the time, but it established that southern states could not use force to defeat the Constitution. Eisenhower was the first president since Reconstruction to meet personally in the White House with black civil rights leaders. He discussed national policy on civil rights with Martin Luther King, Jr., A. Philip Randolph, Roy Wilkins, and Lester B. Granger. Interstate Highway Act 1956 One of Eisenhower's big achievements was the creation of the interstate highway. Preoccupied with other matters, Eisenhower placed primary responsibility for developing a financing mechanism for the grand plan on retired Gen. Lucius D. Clay, an engineer and a long-time associate and advisor to the president. After much debate and hearings between the Senate and the "Clay Comittee, Congress finally agreed to approve the bill Foreign Mideast 1953-Authorized the Central Intelligence Agency to help the Iranian Army take down their Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. Vietnam In 1953, Eisenhower had sent Lt General John O'Daniel to study and asses the French forces in Vietnam. Even though he was advised not to do so, in 1954 he offered military and economic aid to South Vietnam. He also increased the number of US Military advisors to 900 men. Eisenhower Doctrine 1957-Promises military and economic aid to anticommunist governments. NASA 1958-Eisenhower proposed to Congress the need of a civilian space agency to compete with the Soviet Union, who's rocket Sputnik had been launched in 1957-the first country ever to do so. Bay of pigs invasion The Eisenhower Administration planned the Bay of Pigs Invasion that occured in 1961. It was an attempt to take down Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. This failed attempt fell on the lap of JFK. Cold war Six months after he became president, Eisenhower secured an agreement that ended three years of fighting in Korea. On only one other occasion, in Lebanon in 1958, did Eisenhower send combat troops into action. However, defense spending remained high as Eisenhower vigorously waged the Cold War, the acute ideological, political, military and economic contest between Communist countries and the West, just short of hot war. He placed new emphasis on nuclear strength — popularly known as "massive retaliation" — to prevent the outbreak of world war. The Do-Nothing president During Eisenhowers presidency, his intense need for privacy keep the public from seeing all his accomplisments. That is probably what he wanted. However, today it is impossible to say that Eisenhower wasn't a good president. Pre Presidency In September 1910 Eisenhower learned of an announcement of a competitive examination for applicants to the service academies. He also discovered that due to his age, he was no longer eligible to enter the Naval Academy, his first choice. He took the exam and scored second among the eight candidates. When the highest ranking candidate failed the physical requirement, Eisenhower secured an appointment to West Point. Dwight D. Eisenhower entered the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York in June 1911. He graduated in June 1915. Second Lieutenant Eisenhower's first assignment was at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. In the years that followed Eisenhower’s duties included the Army’s 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy, the Tank Corps, the Battle Monuments Commission, football coaching, and training recruits for World War I. General Eisenhower served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from November 1945 until February 1948. He resigned from the Army on February 7, 1948 to serve as president of Columbia University. In 1950, at President Truman's request Eisenhower took a leave of absence from Columbia to command the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. As Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, during the following two years he would stay in touch with Columbia and especially with the American Assembly, a university innovation to which he had devoted substantial energy and time. On June 1, 1952 Eisenhower returned to the United States to campaign actively for the presidency.
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