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Long term effects of exercise - Cardiovascular system
Transcript of Long term effects of exercise - Cardiovascular system
Over a long period of time with regular exercise the heart will increase in size and volume. The walls of the ventricles will get bigger and therefore be able to make more powerful contractions.
Resting Heart Rate
A experienced endurance athlete will have an abnormally low heart rate compared to an average human. This is because they have a very high stroke volume so they have less beats from the heart to pump the required amount of blood around the body.
Decreased Recovery Time
Your recovery time is the time it takes after exercise for your heart rate to return to its normal resting rate. With regular exercise you are able to decrease this recovery time and it is a noticable sigh of how fit and healthy someone is.
Increase in Blood Volume
Resting Blood Pressure
During exercise cardiac output increases due to the increased rate of stroke volume and heart rate. After a long period of time with regular exercise a persons cardiac output will increase due to their stroke volume and heart rate increasing.
Stroke volume is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in one beat. The stroke volume of someone who regulary does exercise will be much higher that someone who does not train.
Capillarisation is a muscle growing process where the blood vessels surronding a muscle fibre increase in number. Long term exercise can lead to the development of the capillary network to a part of the body. As a result of this blood flow to the muscle will increase which will give a more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscle.
Blood volume is the amount of blood that is circulating the body at any one time, and can vary from person to person and can be increased as a result of training. Capillarisation is the cause of this because the greater amount of blood vessels the more blood the body needs.
Exercise increases blood pressure during the exercise but it returns to normal afetrwards. The quicker it returns to normal the fitter someone is. Research suggests that regular exercise can decrease someones resting blood pressure however this is likely only to happen is hypertensive people.