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Evaluating Contemporary Issues A2

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Stuart Wright

on 15 May 2014

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Transcript of Evaluating Contemporary Issues A2

Evaluating Contemporary Issues
World Games
Characteristics - elite / international / qualifing / single or multi sport / shop window effect / commercialised / infrastructure & facility development / large number of spectators and media following
compete against the best / fulfill potential / become professional (earn a living) / gain satisfaction / meet expectations of family & peers / inspired by role models / patriotism
too much pressure / demotivate / cheat / use drugs / suffer injury / overtraining
increased social happiness / possible success increase status / national heroes created / unification of country / encourages investment / tourism / new facilities & infrastructure / increased participation / regeneration /
negative media / cost of hosting or competing / increased taxes / dissent from public / cost of construction / maintaining legacy / damaged reputation
achieving support of public & external organisations cost of bidding process / success of games related to government / negative political implications /
gaining support of public / successful games increase power / improved international status / financial perks /
Becoming Elite
individuals influenced by :
- family support
- sport having high status within community
- PE experience
- financial resources
- national support strategies (e.g coaching / technology etc)
- appropriate talent identification programmes
- media exposure of sport
- barrier groups (e.g gender, disability etc)
- antidiscrimination policies
Elite athletes need;
- positive attitude
- support of friends within sport
- determination
- to balance training & work demands
- high VO2 max (if appropriate
- appropriate physiological abilities
- confidence / belief
Barriers to Progressing -
Gender / ethnic / disability / social class

evidenced by:
- lack of female role models
- imbalance in female sports
- lack of females in management roles
- many top female athletes are still semi-professional or amateur
- lower status of female sport
- social view of women driven by media is not athletic but based on sexuality
- questioning of female sexuality (homophobia)
- lack of sponsorship for female sport
- less media coverage
Racial Discrimination
Difference in elite athletes from different ethnic minorities depending on sport.
Football - high black african / caribbean representation but minimal asian
Athletics - high black african / caribbean representation in sprinting and jumping, but not other sports
Tennis / rowing / badminton- minimal ethnic minority representation
Why? possible reasons:
- role model effect
- peer pressure to participate in certain sports
- link to lower socio-economic class which is linked to certain sports like football / athletics
UK a leading light with disability and elite sport

disability proves to be a barrier to becoming elite due to:
- lack of opportunities / facilities
- fewer role models
- minimal media coverage
- lack of sponsorship in disability sport
- lack of support via TIP / coaching etc
Social Class
Can be a barrier due to:
- lack of financial support to achieve elite status
- some sports perceived as middle or upper class e.g rowing / golf
- discrimination via memberships / fees
- less leisure time to spend training
Sport England 'sport development continuum'
No commitment - PE / taster sessions / recreational
Regular participation - club level / may not want to progress further
County / regional level / progression through TIPs
Elite / full time / may be professional
Talent Identification
Suggested that UK schemes are weak. Successful TIPs should include;
- physiological analysis including future development
- use potential performance measures instead of current
- psychological profiling
- focus on skills that could be learnt as apposed to current sklls
- links between TIPs to development squads
Does sexism exist in sport?
Supporting Performer Development
main organisations:
- UK Sport
- English National Institute of Sport
- Sports Councils ( Sport England )
- Sportscoach UK
- SportsAid
long term athlete development:
government policy underpins sport england strategies to maximising potential and increasing participation time in sport

Early Specialisation Model
Sports such as gymnastics / skating / diving
four stages
1. training to train
2. training to compete
3. training to win
4. retirement / retainment
Late Specialisation Model
Sports such as athletics / team games / racquet sports
six stages
1. FUNdamentals (b 6-9, g 6-8) basic motor skills / focus on fun / wide range of games & sports
2. Learning to train (b 9-12. g 8-11) basic skills & fitness educational aspect as to why you are training. 75-25 split favouring training
3. Training to train (b12-16, g 11-15) Aerobic conditioning / specific fitness components / strength development / training over competition
4. Training to compete (b16-18, g 15-17) sports specific skills / tactics & strategies / avoid overtraining / individual conditioning
5. Training to Win (b 18+, g 17+) skills should be fully established / aim for optimal performance / 85% training sport specific
6. Retirement / Retainment
keeping performer involved in coaching / officiating administrative role

UK Sport
Works with top athletes &
distributes exchequer and lottery funding / answerable to parliament
3 goals:
- World class performance (medals!)
- Worldwide impact (host events / support different sports)
- World Class Standards (maintain high standards of anti-doping / fair ethics etc)
'no compromise' funding strategy targets sports with medal winning capabilities
World Class Performance Pathway
UK sport works with - Sport England / EIS / BOA / NGBs
EIS / English Institutes for Sport

National centres of excellence / top class facilities national network / with UK Sport - run TIP (eg. sporting giants / talent transfer)

Support top athletes with:
nutritional advice / biomechanical analysis / world class facilities / physio and rehab / sports medicine / performance lifestyle / sports science support

sports council - main aim to increase participation at grass roots level via 'grow, sustain, excel'

focus on :
- participation in sport
- provide support structures from school to elite
- work with NGBs in TIP
- distributes lottery funding to sports vis 'whole sport plan'
- works with sportscoachUK, NGB and youth sports trust to provide coaching / leading structures
- have 2 million volunteers
Works with NGB to manage Olympic squads / Independent to government to remain impartial to politics funded by sponsorship and fundraising
Main functions:
- helped organise London 2012
- run training centres in Austria and Cyprus
- distributes Olympic Passport Scheme (use of EIS and other facilities)
- runs Olympic medical institute
- support athletes with 'success workshops'
- supports athletes to find employment to support their training
- Lifestyle advice
- athlete medical scheme
National Governing Bodies (NGB)
Concerned only with their specific sport. main roles:
- Meet targets set out in 'whole sport plan'
- develop club structure
- organise competitions
- develop TIPs (with UK Sport and EIS)
- develop coaching structure
- manage national teams
- nominate athletes for Athlete Personal Awards (grants) & WCPP
- set code of ethics & enforce rules
- promote sport
- increase participation
whole sport plan
- 4 year plan covering key targets such as success criteria / increasing participation / combatting minority groups. funding will be given in accordance to achievement against these targets
Developed a coaching system throughout UK
- enhancing coaching skills
- providing qualified coaches to meet demand
- increase numbers of coaches
- regulating coaching nationally
- coaching centre of excellence at Leeds Met
- ranking system: assistant coach / coach / senior / master

Charity used to raise funds from private sector to support UK amateur athletes with:
- travel
- training
- accomodation
- competition entry fees
- equipment

government funding programme / partnership with higher education institutes supports athletes with coaching, training, conditioning, physio and lifestyle support whilst in education.

down to NGBs to identify and nominate
Money / Desire to win / Gamesmanship / Cheating / Drugs

All have threatened the ideals of sportsmanship

Sportsmen and women under increased pressure

Lack or morale restraints

Extrinsic pressures – sponsor / media / crowds / coaches
Modern Sport and Sportsmanship
Bending / stretching rules to gain an advantage

- Time wasting
- Feigning injury
Going against contract to compete
Arguing with officials
Appealing even when you know you are wrong
Playacting / diving / feigning injury
Time wasting
Use of drugs
Functional action – within contract to compete
Returning ball to opposition
Clapping / cheering opposition
Admitting conceding of a point / goal / wicket if officials unsure
Exhausting yourself to try to win
Helping opposition
Admitting to a foul
Functional behaviours
Unwritten code developed by Victorian age and public school system
Athletes must;
Try their best
Show sportsmanship (fair play and true spirit of sport)
Respect rules and official
Contract to Compete
Eventually the better players needed to work less to play for their clubs
More and more spectators meant that clubs could pay higher wages
Hence, the professionalism of sport took over from the most popular sport – football
Some sports resisted – rowing / tennis / golf
All managers / administrators of sport remained upper class
Increased media attention allowed professional sportsmen to climb social ladder and earn more money
An Eventual switch of roles as in modern society – professionals have the higher status and earning potential as amateur performers are regarded as less skilled and lower status
Change in Status
Paid to play
Working classes
Excluded from joining clubs with middle and upper classes
Better wages than working in factories alone
Factories would compete to employ the better players
Gentleman Amateur – Upper / Middle class
Strict adherence to rules
Ethical code – fair play
Spirit of the game
Played in leisure time
Often members of amateur clubs
Paid Fees to the clubs
Athleticism – Devotion to the physical, social and morale benefits of playing sport
Public Schools – Strong belief that education and sport would lead to powerful characters and strong leaders
Huge class divide in society replicated in sport
Professional & Amateur
Introduction of structure with rules and codes of conduct
Conduct of participants’ behavior was regulated
Ethos of fair play
Public Schools started to formally write rules and regulations and code of practice
Led to first NGBs
Organising national leagues
UK Sport exported around World
Sport was often viewed as a breeding ground for violence / gambling / crime
Middle Classes wanted to refine sport using morale values
3 main changes
- Codification
- Competition
- Organisations
Rational Recreation
Wages increased / working conditions improved
Improved infrastructure – comms and transport
Fixtures / competitions developed
Many teams established (Notts County 1862)
Middle Classes controlled Sport to maintain control over the masses

Meanwhile – Upper Classes unaffected by Urbanisation
Machines now used on a large scale
Factories employing large numbers of people
Living close to work / working long hours (6 - 12 hour days) only sundays to rest
Urbanisation – moving from rural areas to cities
Church and Industry controlled sport – no play on sundays
Church promoted Athleticism (sport & morals)
Factory owners used sport to develop morale / loyalty / health / control the masses
Working week down to 5 ½ days. Sat p.m for Sport
Only the best players could play due to lack of space
Birth of spectators
Industrialisation – 1860 - onwards
Aristocracy played complex sports
Rules and regulations
Real Tennis / Fencing
Concept of sportsmanship
Peasants precluded from playing
Popular Recreation – Pre 1860
Middle / Upper Classes
Why was it simple? Violent? Local? Occasional?

Characteristics of Popular recreation

S – Simple rules
C – Courtly/popular
O – Organisation? No
W - Wagering
L – Lower class

C – Cruel/violent
O – Occasional
R – Rural / Local
N – Natural/simple
Simple – Uneducated / illiterate
Violent – Represented society
Local – No transport / communication
Occasional - Leisure time limited, dictated by farming seasons
Example - Mob Football
Popular Recreation – Pre 1860
Lower Classes
Modern Sport & Ethics
Conforming to rules
Equal chance to all competitors
Honesty and fair play
Acting in a dignified manner
Respect for all
Sound Character – responding to challenge and fear
Politeness to others
Olympic Ideal & Olympism

Personal excellence / sport as education / cultural exchange / mass participation / fair play / international understanding
Eugenio Monti (1964 Winter Olympic Games)

Luz Long (1936 Olympic Games)

Jesse Pennington (1912 FA Cup final)

Bill Tilden (1927 French Championships)

Jack Nicklaus (1969 Ryder Cup)

Alf Gover (1945 Victory Test)
Commercial contracts


Health & Safety of fans / players
Coaches / Agents / Clubs
Bribery / Match fixing

Duty of care over players

Duty of care over spectators
Employment rights – contracts

Drugs issues / cases

Gambling / betting

Player violence / aggression
Performers & the Law
Law there to protect different groups – players / fans / officials / clubs / NGB

Higher financial investments have increased number and seriousness of cases
Sport & the Law
WADA – International body
UK Sport – NADO
NGB have agreed that athletes whereabouts must always be known
Testing can occur at any time day or night
Urine sample / Strict procedure (anonymous) / 2 samples
Not all drugs leave traces in urine
If first sample is positive - second sample tested
Blood testing more valid, but more invasive
Drug Testing
Role models
-Use positive role model
-Negative role model - name and shame
- about risks of drugs at young age
Clear process
Public education
Testing – random; no warning; more efficient; must disclose whereabouts
-Punish suppliers
-Use of Law
Deterring Drug Taking
Legalise drugs in sport
Health risk
Dysfunctional role models
Pressure to take drugs
Unfair – cost element
Destroy competition ethos
Save time/money
Some drugs undetectable
Drugs aid spectacular performances
Competitors should make own opinion
Everyone same level
Grey area between PED & supplement / training aid
Drugs in Sport
Perceived lower ability / skill
Everyone else is
Unsure of side effects
Extrinsic reward of success
Pressure from coach
Speed up recovery
Why Take Drugs?
Anabolic Steroids
Beta Blockers
Drugs In Sport
All seater stadiums
All ticket matches
Improved ground facilities (CCTV)
Bans for misconduct
Family friendly
Segregation of fans
Seize weapons
More stewards
Membership schemes
Shared Police Intelligence
Preventing Hooliganism
Reports form attitudes of readers / watchers
Media create atmosphere – eg. referring to wars
Terminology dehumanises fans (thugs)
Contributes to moral panic
Sensational reporting may lead to copy cat incidents
Media role in Hooliganism



Who should take responsibility?
Causes -
Violence on Pitch
Tribal / ritualised
Racially motivated
Importance of game
Resistance to change
Sub groups / political – BNP / far right eg. Neo-nazi
Spontaneous / Pre meditated
Social Learning
Lack of moral restraint
Winning is everything
Pressures of extrinsic reward e.g sponsorship
Lack of punishment from NGB
Personal pride
Preserve self confidence
Personal rewards
Causes for deviance
Intention to cheat / harm others for own benefit

Using Drugs
Cheating e.g diving
Fan Violence (hooliganism)
Illegal betting
Financial irregularities
Player Violence
No intention to cheat / harm others

Playing when injured
Accidental harm to others
Deviance – Straying from Social Norms
Gamesmanship (dysfunctional)
Bending rules / breaking them in order to gain an advantage

Eg. Timewasting / diving / feigning injury
Sportsmanship (functional behaviours)
Conforming to rules, spirit and etiquette of sport

Eg. Helping opponent up / cheering applauding opponent
Sportsmanship & Gamesmanship
Middle class origin: shake hands, cheer other team
Losing was acceptable
No financial reward
Adhere to a code of conduct
Equal numbers
Conditions same for all
Upholding the rules
Sport redefined moral code
Making sport ‘Fair’ - Victorian Era
Built on Concept of Fair Play
Obscene language and behaviour
Large scale
Confrontation with police
Herd effect
Violence & Damage to property
Hard core believe this is what the ‘match’ is about
Hooliganism – Key Characteristics
Bring together countries
Strive to find the best
Learn from each others cultures
Education through sport
Open to all the youth

Still applicable? Why?
Olympic Ideal

Radio and television
- supplied immediately
Radio - less influential - difficulty in conveying action; more portable.

- terrestrial, satellite, digital and on the web - the greatest influence on sport
TV only shows producer’s view – especially highlights
- very descriptive, happens after events. based on opinions (subjective)
Tabloids sensationalise / broadsheets more factual. all have political agendas
Internet -
mixture of blogs / websites / social network (twitter) / live streaming
Media and Sport
Media - Golden triangle

Can modern TV and broadcasting can give the same “spectator” experiences as actually attending the event.
The impact of the media and the commercialisation of sport on spectators.
Yes it can..

- enhanced screen size/sound
- improved technology (player cam/hawk eye/interactive)
- can watch as part of a crowd (eg in a pub)
- so more of a shared experience
No it can’t..
-not real atmosphere
-producer/commentator shapes the experience
-viewing at home does not allow you to play the “true role of a crowd/spectator”
-it does not allow any interaction with opposition spectators
-increased ticket prices/pay per view
-expensive merchandise/regular changing of replica kits
-timing of events moved to suit “prime time” TV
-advert breaks interrupt viewing of events
-traditions of a sport are altered (eg coloured kit/rule
Changes, etc)
-irresponsible reporting (may lead to
-increased access to watch higher standards of performance
-improved quality sporting arenas/stadia
-improved viewing experience (eg player cam)
-greater awareness/knowledge about a sport
-creates role models to aspire to and lookup to
-increased excitement/entertainment as a result of rule
-sport has become more family friendly/less hooliganism
-responsible reporting
The potential impact on a sport of any negative publicity by the media (eg. blood gate / suarez bite / match fixing)

-Less media coverage/income from media
-Less sponsorship/lottery funding
-Fewer spectators/lower gate receipts
-Decrease in participation rates

-Increased pressure on NGB to eliminate poor player behavior
-Negative role models/young players copy poor behavior
Commercialisation of Sport
'using sport as a comodity to gain economic benefits' (make money!!)
Advantages of commercialism in sport

-Athletes can earn an income/work full time
-Increases funding/income for a sport
-Leading to improved resources/facilities/grass roots schemes
-Leads to more events/competition formats
-Provides role models/increases a sport’s profile
-Can increase participation in a sport
Disadvantages to a sport of commercialisation

-Win at all costs attitude encourages deviant behavior
-Increases the inequality of funding (existing) between sports
-Eg Favors male sport over female sport/elite over grass roots sport etc
The characteristics of a sport which make it more attractive for TV coverage
-National relevance/traditional part of culture
-High levels of skill in evidence
-Competitive/opponents potentially well matched
-Demonstrate aggression/physical challenge
-Understandable rules/scoring systems
-Relatively short time scale
-Well known performers/role models
Have modern day sponsorship deals positively or negatively influenced the behaviour of elite sports performers?
-pressure to win at all costs
-aggressive play may result
-deviancy/drug taking may result
-increased gamesmanship may result
-temptation to compete when injured/over-train (positive deviancy)
-too much control by the sponsor
- allows performer to train full time/harder
- to project a positive image performers are more disciplined
- on and off the field
- eg sportsmanship/etiquette/charitable work
Definition of
and how companies benefit from their involvement in sport

-Sponsorship is the provision of funds/money/support for commercial return
-Increase in commercial sales/company or product awareness
-Improve company image
-Link to healthy image of sport
-Corporate hospitality
-Exclusive advertising rights
Possible disadvantages of a large sponsorship deal for a sport

-New competition formats introduced
-Playing times altered/playing season altered
-New rules introduced
-Location of events may be influenced by commercial considerations
-Ticket allocation given to sponsors/not fans
-Increased demand for advertising time/commercial breaks
-Over reliance on money/problems if funding withdrawn
Ways that support is given to elite performers from the commercial sector
- Sponsorship
- Advertising contracts
- Endorsements/merchandising contracts
- Media contracts
The benefits companies receive as a result of such support
- Increased commercial sales/revenue
- Increased company/product awareness
- Improve image of company/product
- Via link to healthy image of sport
- Corporate hospitality
Should an elite performer consider the nature of a company’s product before accepting financial support from them.
Yes they should consider it…

- product may be in opposition to values of sport/unhealthy
- (eg alcohol/fast food)
- performer may be open to criticism if product is seen to be opposed to the nature/values of sport (eg betting)
- product might not suit the performers image/damage future marketability
- potential conflict with requirements of performers with specific needs/access to best product on the market
(eg footwear/swimsuits)
- performer may be concerned if product is produced
- “unethically manufactured” (eg Nike clothing)
- as role models, performers should set a good example
- product may be against the law/advertising restrictions
No they do not need to consider it…

-if product is legal, performer has a right to accept it
-sports performers are at the top for a relatively short period
of time so they should maximize their earnings
-performers do not ask to be role models
-financially they have little alternative other than to accept the
-no other sponsorship opportunities
-if they do not accept it, someone else will
The benefits for performers and spectators from advancements in sports technology.

-Advancements in clothing can improve performance standards/break records
-Tailor made equipment can be designed for specific performers
-Faster rehabilitation/injury recovery
-Improved scientific analysis of performance
-Increased knowledge of diet/sports supplements

-Increased sense of involvement (eg awaiting decisions on ‘big screen’)
-Improved experience of watching sport at home (eg interactive coverage/ HD)
-Increased excitement from records broken/top quality performances
examples -

Changing the format of play – tennis tie breaks
Changing the competition structure – Champions League/ RU premiership
Changing the rules to simplify them – e.g. American scoring - squash
Changing the rules to make game ‘flow’ – one-day/20:20 cricket
All now rely on each other and there are advantages and disadvantages between each relationship
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