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AP Euro Mini-Project: Comparing The Early Stuarts (James I and Charles I) and The Restorations Stuarts (Charles II and James II)
Transcript of AP Euro Mini-Project: Comparing The Early Stuarts (James I and Charles I) and The Restorations Stuarts (Charles II and James II)
He strongly believed in his divine right as a monarch, and he only had to answer to God.
Rather than paying off the debts, he squandered money on his favorites in court.
He granted monopolies that caused tension with the commercial classes.
Viewed Puritans who did not agree with him as potential traitors.
Like his father, Charles I considered constraints like due process of law intolerable and a threat to his divine right as monarch.
He lacked two things that would be necessary for carrying out his wishes: a royal bureaucracy appointed by him and a standing army that would put emphasis on his will.
Dismissed Parliament for 11 years, even after signing the Petitions of Rights, which denied the right to tax without permission from Parliament, imprison a freeman without just cause, or house troops in private homes.
He eventually had to raise money illegally, and later resorting back to calling Parliament.
His defeat in the English Civil War lead to his execution and to the English Commonwealth.
First won approval from the people after challenging the Dutch, who had been England's biggest trade rival.
Supported financially by Louis XIV, during the wars.
He was tolerant of other religions because he was secretly Catholic.
With the return of the Stuarts, Charles' power was restricted, for he could only rule through Parliament and absolutism was done away with.
Ascended the throne after his brother's death.
In direct violation of the Test Act, put in place by Parliament during Charles II reign, he put Roman Catholics in positions in the army, universities, and local government.
He seemed to be trying to revive absolutism, especially when he granted religious freedom to all.
James, his wife and infant son fled in 1688 to France to become pensioners of Louis XIV after the Church of England offered the throne to Mary (his daughter) and William of Orange. Sources:
A History of Western Society textbook Chapter 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism.