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Body Manual

Exploring Medical Careers (Nielsen), P.5
by

Vivian Tran

on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of Body Manual

Nervous System
Excretory System
Immune System
What is it?
A network of cells, tissues, organs, and chemicals that fight off pathogens (microorganisms that cause diseases) and foreign substances that intrude
Memory Lymphocytes
is the result of antigen activated B and T-Cells
circulate in lymphatic system & bloodstream
job is to kill former invaders w/ antibodies & killer T-cells
The Skeletal System

the bones supports,protects the body including organs such as the heart and the lungs
endocrine regulation
stores 99% calcium in your body
allows movement

Lines of Defense
Diseases
Functions

osteoporosis : loss of bone tissue, thin bone, can disappear completely this disease usually happens to the elderly
scoliosis : a side-to-side curve in the back or spine
arthritis: damages joints and their surrounding structure


Diseases
Surface Coverage
regular exercise
eat healthy
drink and eat dairy products to get more calcium in order to strengthen the bones.

Care
Skin
is strong barrier/defense that prevents pathogens from entering
Mucus
membranes trap inhaled pathogens to block from bloodstream
the largest bone in the skeletal system is the pelvis or hip bone
the longest bone is the femur
after death cartilage rots faster than the bone
the size of the smallest bone is equivalent to the size of a rice grain.


Fun Facts
Non-Specific Responses
Any
pathogen is engulfed
Defenses respond to
infections
Macrophages
(white blood cells) eat pathogenic bacterium
Inflammatory Response
reaction to tissue damage, caused by injury/infection
Respiratory System
uses the lungs to take in oxygen and take out carbon dioxide.
this body system helps you breathe.
the oxygen that you take in is the main energy source for cells.

Function
Specific Responses
Antibodies made
for
specific
antigens
B-cells respond
to antigens by producing antibodies
T-cells regulate
immune response of other cells and attack invaders
Active Immunity
is exposing body to weakened pathogen so memory cell can fight it off
Passive Immunity
acquired by person-to-person transfer of antibody
-lung cancer- the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs. it can start in the the left or right or both lungs. Up to 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking
- asthma- when the airways that lead to your lungs are swollen and makes it hard to breathe. about 10% of Americans have this disease
- pneumonia :lung inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infection, in which the air sacs fill with pus and may become solid. Inflammation may affect both lungs

Diseases
Type 1 Diabetes
: occurs in adolescents born w/ lack of insulin
Leukemia
: Cancer of blood cells (white cell overproduction)
Immunodeficiency
: malfunction/dysfunction of immune system (genetic)
Have a healthy diet
do not smoke
avoid second hand smoking
maintain clean and dust free surroundings
Care
an average person breathes about 14 pints a day
human sneezes are very fast they can travel about 120 mph
the hairs in our nose filters the air we breathe
a person at rest breathes 12 to 15 times a minute
the right lung is slightly larger than the left
Care
Interesting Facts
sensible eating plan
proper nutrients
enough sleep
6-8 oz water per day
laugh
don't diet
minimize intense endurance activity
Endocrine System
this system is in charge of the slow body processes such as cell growth
it produces chemicals that regulate the cells activities. this system uses glands and hormones.
the endocrine system often works with the nervous system in order to help the body function properly
the endocrine system is where hormones are produced,too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful
Hormones regulates body heat and bone growth.
Function
The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes).

Glands
Memory Lymphocytes (above)
Inflammatory Response (below)
Integumentary System
What is it?
This system's
main
is the skin, along with its
derivatives
: glands, hair, and nails. They protect the body from disease by providing
barrier
.
Skin
It has 3 layers: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat.
Epidermis:
is the outer layer
cells constantly forming underneath
new cells move up --> older rises to surface
Lose 30-40k dead skin cells per minute = 9 lbs. annually
Dermis:
Nerve Endings
- allows feeling, by working w/ brain & nervous system and muscles for reflexes
Blood Vessels
- bring oxygen & nutrients and take away waste
Oil/Sebaceous Glands
- produces sebum to keep skin lubricated
Sweat Glands
- produces sweat w/ pores
Mostly fat to
absorb
shocks,
warmth
, and keep
attached
to tissues
Hairs
grow out of follicles
Subcutaneous Fat:
Hair
Sense insects on skin, before sting
control/prevent heat loss
shine/waterproof b/c of sebaceous glands
Nails
Nails
made of dead skin cells and keratin
Nail-biting
is bad-- bacteria/infections
Regularly
cut
nails
Dandruff
:shedding of dead skin on scalp
Sunburns
- too much sun, use sunscreen
too much sun = skin cancer
What is it?
It removes excess/unnecessary material (waste), keeps body cool, and etc.
Kidneys, Urine
filter waste
in blood -> exits body as
urine
(fluid stored in
urethra
; goes through
bladder
)
Balances
water and salt (osmoregulation)
When dehydrated- sends signals to absorb water
Left
kidney always higher than
right
Sweat
Sweat to keep body cool
Large Intestines, Solid Waste
removes solid
waste from body
collects water
from waste that can be reused
Liver, Bile
vital
and largest gland
regulates glycogen
storage & detoxifies ingestion of
alcohol
gets
rid
of unneeded substances
secrets bile
(breaks down fats,ethanol, acidic wastes)
Lungs
excretes
extra
carbon dioxide
for oxygen
Kidney Stones
: hard, crystallized deposits formed in kidneys (made of mineral and acid salts)
Painful
when passing through/exiting
Too
large
= surgery
Do not keep urine in for more than 30min. May weaken muscles and cause pain. IF YOU NEED TO GO, DO IT.
Disease
growth hormone problems: too much of the growth hormone can cause a young child to grow too big this is called gigantism.
hyperthyroidism: when level of thyroid hormones is very high. this causes weight loss, nervousness, tremors, excessive sweating, increased heart rate,blood pressure, protruding eyes, and a swelling in the neck from an enlarged thyroid gland
precocious puberty: when achild at a very young age develops sex hormones


Diseases
eat healthy because obesity can be the main cause of diabetes type 2

get rest

eat right

avoid steroids
Care
-Human behavior is caused by the endocrine system which affects the nervous system

- the hypothalamus gland make you feel hunger and thirst

-it aids the immune system by helping the body build resistance to disease
- 10 to 20 % of male high school athletes , up 30 % of college athletes, and up to 80 % of bodybuilders use steroids.
Fun Facts
Muscular System
This system helps with the movement in your body. it is the network of muscle and nervous tissue.
Function
There are 3 different kinds of muscle. Voluntary, involuntary and cardiac.

-involuntary muscles contract and relax to push a variety of substances through the body

-voluntary muscles are used to throws things lift things walk etc.

-cardiac muscle is the heart. The heart pumps blood throughout the body

Circulatory System
Muscles
What is it?
-compartment syndrome: when there is excessive pressure in the muscles that causes a decrease in blood flow. this prevents oxygen and nutrition from reaching nerve and muscle cells causing pain.

-muscular dystrophy: muscles fibers become damaged and over time the bone weakens.
Diseases
-aerobic exercise :strengthens the heart, reduces body fat, increases muscle tone and improves muscle strength.

-correct posture : prevents negative effects in the muscular system.

- maintain normal weight : too much weight make your muscles work harder. it prevents you from having aches and pain.


This system
circulates
lymph and and blood
throughout the body
, which consists of the heart, blood, and vessels. It is responsible for
moving blood
from your heart to every part of your body and back again.
Blood, Cells, and Fragments
Care
-it takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 to frown

-there are muscles in the root of your hair that give you goosebumps.

-the hardest working muscle is in the eye

-the largest muscle in your body is your gluteus maximus
-nearly 85 percent of body heat is produced by muscle contraction


Red Blood Cells
:
are round, disk-shaped
oxygen carriers
transports oxygen
throughout the whole body
lacks
nucleus and
contains
hemoglobin
remains
active
for approximately
120 days
, then
breaks down
into waste in the spleen and liver
makes up
44%
total volume of blood
Fun Facts
Digestive System
This system breaks down food and converts it into energy and nutrients for the body
Function
saliva moistens food
the teeth breaks down the food
the tongue forms the food that you chewed into a shape that makes it easier to swallow
From your mouth it goes to the esophagus and then into your stomach
When the food goes down to the stomach it starts to break down the food that you swallowed, so it can easily be digested.
After the food has been in the stomach, it then goes to the small intestine and then into the large intestine.
The large intestine is when all the nutrients from the food has been absorbed.
Process and Organs Used
eat food rich in fiber
eat good amounts of fish
cut out fried and high in fat foods
take probiotics
develop good eating habits
drink lots of water
exercise regularly
Care
Dysfunctions
indigestion:is an uncomfortable feeling in the upper abdomen.
heartburn:is a burning feeling in the center of the chest. These symptoms can cause pain.
gas
constipation
nausea
diarrhea.
An adults stomach can hold up to 1.5 liters of food and liquids
The small intestine is about 22 feet long
An adult's esophagus is 10 to 14 inches long and one inch in diameter
Food stays in your stomach for 2 to 3 hours
Our bodies make 1 to 3 pints of saliva a day
The average male can eat 50 tons of food in their lifetime to have an average weight of 150 pounds
Alcohol is not digested like other foods.About 20 percent of the alcohol consumed is absorbed in the stomach, and about 80 percent is absorbed in the small intestine..
Interesting Facts
White Blood Cells
:
are
large
and have several different
types
fights
off diseases
Platelets
:
are fragments for
blood clotting
includes:
antibodies
(fight infections),
hormones
(regulate body), &
electrolytes
(keep body hydrated)
Plasma:
straw-colored
liquid
that contains
proteins
where blood cells and fragments are suspended
transports
blood cells, platelets, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases, and inorganic salts
Makes up about
55%
total volume of blood
an average adult has about 1.25 gal. of blood
one drop of blood = 5mil red blood cells, 50k white blood cells, and 2.5 mil platelets
Heart
Handles
3 types of circulation
:
Coronary
- blood vessels bring in nutrients and remove waste
Pulmonary
- flow of blood from heart to lungs
In lungs, blood
drops off
CO2 to breathe out
->

picks up
oxygen to breathe in
->
oxygen-rich blood
heads back to heart
Systemic
- uses major arteries and veins to move oxygen rich blood to rest of organs and body tissues
blood cycles
through body by moving from heart to arteries
->
to capillaries (small blood vessels)
->
to veins
->
then back to heart
blood leaves
heart through
aorta
(big artery)--
drops off
oxygen and nutrients for cell fuel ->
picks up
carbon dioxide and waste for disposal -> solid waste
dropped off
at kidneys & CO2 exchanged for oxygen
CYCLE REPEATS
Has
2 atria
made of ventricles-- brings
blood back
to heart & pumps
blood out
Right atrium
filled w/
oxygen

deprived
blood-
left
w/ fresh
Right ventricle
pumps
old blood
to lungs-
left to body
Takes about
one minute
for blood to circulate through whole body and back to heart
Disease/Care
Heart Attack
: Blood flow to heart blocked
Healthy diet, exercise, don't smoke
What is it?
It is the
control center
for the entire body made of of the
brain
,
spinal cord
, and huge network of
nerves
that
transmits signals
between different parts of the body.
Brain
uses information
received from nerves to
coordinate
all actions/reactions
contains
network of
neurons
that carry messages back and forth
when you
touch
something, neuron is stimulated -> then
generates
tiny electrical impulse -> it
travels
full length of neuron-> gets to end w/o assistance of
neurotransmitters
-> signal travels through
network to brain
Autonomic, Somatic, Spinal Cord
Autonomic System
- handles autonomic happenings (ex. heartbeat)
Somatic System
- controls voluntary actions like (ex. talking/touching)
When talking to something hot, triggers reflexes
->
spinal cord signaled w/ pain message
->
reacts by contracting fingers
Diseases
Arteriosclerosis
-
fatty deposits
in arteries cause walls to stiffen and thicken
Alzheimer's
- progressive disease that
occurs in brain
; results impaired memory, thinking, behavior
More than
5mil
people have Alzheimer's today
6th leading
cause of death that
cannot
be prevented/cured
Care
drink fluids- dehydration = confusion
exercise frequently
don't do drugs
get rest
into
the
Body
Portal
A
Sources
http://forum.mind-energy.net/other-forms-alternative-medicine/1084-7-simple-secrets-taking-good-care-your-digestive-health.html
http://www.livescience.com/22537-skeletal-system.html
http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/ss/skeletal-system.htm
http://www.statisticbrain.com/human-skeleton-statistics/
http://www.bodyworlds.com/Do
http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/endocrine.html#
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/anatomy_of_the_endocrine_system/article_em.htm
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-muscular-system.htm
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