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Transcript of Body Manual
What is it?
A network of cells, tissues, organs, and chemicals that fight off pathogens (microorganisms that cause diseases) and foreign substances that intrude
is the result of antigen activated B and T-Cells
circulate in lymphatic system & bloodstream
job is to kill former invaders w/ antibodies & killer T-cells
The Skeletal System
the bones supports,protects the body including organs such as the heart and the lungs
stores 99% calcium in your body
Lines of Defense
osteoporosis : loss of bone tissue, thin bone, can disappear completely this disease usually happens to the elderly
scoliosis : a side-to-side curve in the back or spine
arthritis: damages joints and their surrounding structure
drink and eat dairy products to get more calcium in order to strengthen the bones.
is strong barrier/defense that prevents pathogens from entering
membranes trap inhaled pathogens to block from bloodstream
the largest bone in the skeletal system is the pelvis or hip bone
the longest bone is the femur
after death cartilage rots faster than the bone
the size of the smallest bone is equivalent to the size of a rice grain.
pathogen is engulfed
Defenses respond to
(white blood cells) eat pathogenic bacterium
reaction to tissue damage, caused by injury/infection
uses the lungs to take in oxygen and take out carbon dioxide.
this body system helps you breathe.
the oxygen that you take in is the main energy source for cells.
to antigens by producing antibodies
immune response of other cells and attack invaders
is exposing body to weakened pathogen so memory cell can fight it off
acquired by person-to-person transfer of antibody
-lung cancer- the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs. it can start in the the left or right or both lungs. Up to 90% of lung cancer cases are caused by smoking
- asthma- when the airways that lead to your lungs are swollen and makes it hard to breathe. about 10% of Americans have this disease
- pneumonia :lung inflammation caused by bacterial or viral infection, in which the air sacs fill with pus and may become solid. Inflammation may affect both lungs
Type 1 Diabetes
: occurs in adolescents born w/ lack of insulin
: Cancer of blood cells (white cell overproduction)
: malfunction/dysfunction of immune system (genetic)
Have a healthy diet
do not smoke
avoid second hand smoking
maintain clean and dust free surroundings
an average person breathes about 14 pints a day
human sneezes are very fast they can travel about 120 mph
the hairs in our nose filters the air we breathe
a person at rest breathes 12 to 15 times a minute
the right lung is slightly larger than the left
sensible eating plan
6-8 oz water per day
minimize intense endurance activity
this system is in charge of the slow body processes such as cell growth
it produces chemicals that regulate the cells activities. this system uses glands and hormones.
the endocrine system often works with the nervous system in order to help the body function properly
the endocrine system is where hormones are produced,too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful
Hormones regulates body heat and bone growth.
The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes).
Memory Lymphocytes (above)
Inflammatory Response (below)
What is it?
is the skin, along with its
: glands, hair, and nails. They protect the body from disease by providing
It has 3 layers: epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat.
is the outer layer
cells constantly forming underneath
new cells move up --> older rises to surface
Lose 30-40k dead skin cells per minute = 9 lbs. annually
- allows feeling, by working w/ brain & nervous system and muscles for reflexes
- bring oxygen & nutrients and take away waste
- produces sebum to keep skin lubricated
- produces sweat w/ pores
Mostly fat to
, and keep
grow out of follicles
Sense insects on skin, before sting
control/prevent heat loss
shine/waterproof b/c of sebaceous glands
made of dead skin cells and keratin
is bad-- bacteria/infections
:shedding of dead skin on scalp
- too much sun, use sunscreen
too much sun = skin cancer
What is it?
It removes excess/unnecessary material (waste), keeps body cool, and etc.
in blood -> exits body as
(fluid stored in
; goes through
water and salt (osmoregulation)
When dehydrated- sends signals to absorb water
kidney always higher than
Sweat to keep body cool
Large Intestines, Solid Waste
waste from body
from waste that can be reused
and largest gland
storage & detoxifies ingestion of
of unneeded substances
(breaks down fats,ethanol, acidic wastes)
: hard, crystallized deposits formed in kidneys (made of mineral and acid salts)
when passing through/exiting
Do not keep urine in for more than 30min. May weaken muscles and cause pain. IF YOU NEED TO GO, DO IT.
growth hormone problems: too much of the growth hormone can cause a young child to grow too big this is called gigantism.
hyperthyroidism: when level of thyroid hormones is very high. this causes weight loss, nervousness, tremors, excessive sweating, increased heart rate,blood pressure, protruding eyes, and a swelling in the neck from an enlarged thyroid gland
precocious puberty: when achild at a very young age develops sex hormones
eat healthy because obesity can be the main cause of diabetes type 2
-Human behavior is caused by the endocrine system which affects the nervous system
- the hypothalamus gland make you feel hunger and thirst
-it aids the immune system by helping the body build resistance to disease
- 10 to 20 % of male high school athletes , up 30 % of college athletes, and up to 80 % of bodybuilders use steroids.
This system helps with the movement in your body. it is the network of muscle and nervous tissue.
There are 3 different kinds of muscle. Voluntary, involuntary and cardiac.
-involuntary muscles contract and relax to push a variety of substances through the body
-voluntary muscles are used to throws things lift things walk etc.
-cardiac muscle is the heart. The heart pumps blood throughout the body
What is it?
-compartment syndrome: when there is excessive pressure in the muscles that causes a decrease in blood flow. this prevents oxygen and nutrition from reaching nerve and muscle cells causing pain.
-muscular dystrophy: muscles fibers become damaged and over time the bone weakens.
-aerobic exercise :strengthens the heart, reduces body fat, increases muscle tone and improves muscle strength.
-correct posture : prevents negative effects in the muscular system.
- maintain normal weight : too much weight make your muscles work harder. it prevents you from having aches and pain.
lymph and and blood
throughout the body
, which consists of the heart, blood, and vessels. It is responsible for
from your heart to every part of your body and back again.
Blood, Cells, and Fragments
-it takes 17 muscles to smile and 42 to frown
-there are muscles in the root of your hair that give you goosebumps.
-the hardest working muscle is in the eye
-the largest muscle in your body is your gluteus maximus
-nearly 85 percent of body heat is produced by muscle contraction
Red Blood Cells
are round, disk-shaped
throughout the whole body
into waste in the spleen and liver
total volume of blood
This system breaks down food and converts it into energy and nutrients for the body
saliva moistens food
the teeth breaks down the food
the tongue forms the food that you chewed into a shape that makes it easier to swallow
From your mouth it goes to the esophagus and then into your stomach
When the food goes down to the stomach it starts to break down the food that you swallowed, so it can easily be digested.
After the food has been in the stomach, it then goes to the small intestine and then into the large intestine.
The large intestine is when all the nutrients from the food has been absorbed.
Process and Organs Used
eat food rich in fiber
eat good amounts of fish
cut out fried and high in fat foods
develop good eating habits
drink lots of water
indigestion:is an uncomfortable feeling in the upper abdomen.
heartburn:is a burning feeling in the center of the chest. These symptoms can cause pain.
An adults stomach can hold up to 1.5 liters of food and liquids
The small intestine is about 22 feet long
An adult's esophagus is 10 to 14 inches long and one inch in diameter
Food stays in your stomach for 2 to 3 hours
Our bodies make 1 to 3 pints of saliva a day
The average male can eat 50 tons of food in their lifetime to have an average weight of 150 pounds
Alcohol is not digested like other foods.About 20 percent of the alcohol consumed is absorbed in the stomach, and about 80 percent is absorbed in the small intestine..
White Blood Cells
and have several different
are fragments for
(regulate body), &
(keep body hydrated)
where blood cells and fragments are suspended
blood cells, platelets, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, gases, and inorganic salts
Makes up about
total volume of blood
an average adult has about 1.25 gal. of blood
one drop of blood = 5mil red blood cells, 50k white blood cells, and 2.5 mil platelets
3 types of circulation
- blood vessels bring in nutrients and remove waste
- flow of blood from heart to lungs
In lungs, blood
CO2 to breathe out
oxygen to breathe in
heads back to heart
- uses major arteries and veins to move oxygen rich blood to rest of organs and body tissues
through body by moving from heart to arteries
to capillaries (small blood vessels)
then back to heart
oxygen and nutrients for cell fuel ->
carbon dioxide and waste for disposal -> solid waste
at kidneys & CO2 exchanged for oxygen
made of ventricles-- brings
to heart & pumps
left to body
for blood to circulate through whole body and back to heart
: Blood flow to heart blocked
Healthy diet, exercise, don't smoke
What is it?
It is the
for the entire body made of of the
, and huge network of
between different parts of the body.
received from nerves to
that carry messages back and forth
something, neuron is stimulated -> then
tiny electrical impulse -> it
full length of neuron-> gets to end w/o assistance of
-> signal travels through
network to brain
Autonomic, Somatic, Spinal Cord
- handles autonomic happenings (ex. heartbeat)
- controls voluntary actions like (ex. talking/touching)
When talking to something hot, triggers reflexes
spinal cord signaled w/ pain message
reacts by contracting fingers
in arteries cause walls to stiffen and thicken
- progressive disease that
occurs in brain
; results impaired memory, thinking, behavior
people have Alzheimer's today
cause of death that
drink fluids- dehydration = confusion
don't do drugs