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English as an Additional Language
Transcript of English as an Additional Language
(2000) A (cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr context reduced cognitively undemanding context embedded cognitively demanding B = context embedded, cognitively demanding
Explanation and justification
Simple measuring skills
Turn taking C = cognitively undemanding, context reduced
Describe stories heard/seen on TV
Listening to a story
Reciting nursery rhymes
Matching words – no pictures D= context reduced, cognitively demanding
Reflect on feelings
Discuss ways that language is written
Relate new information in a book
Reading a book and discussing content
Listening to news A= context embedded, cognitively undemanding
Make own book in own language
Talking about the weather
Colour in http://www.teachersmedia.co.uk/videos/ks1-ks2-english-the-multilingual-school Ideas for writing... Ideas for social interaction So, what approaches should we use in the classroom? Ideas for reading... So what can the class teacher do? Video of EAL provison... Further Recommended Reading
The International journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
http://www.teachersmedia.co.uk/videos/english-as-an-additional-language (maggie webster presenting)
http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/ethnicminorities/ Baker C (2001) Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 3rd Edition Clevedon Multilingual Matters Ltd
Cummins J (2000) language, Power and Pedagogy Clevedon Multilingual Matters Ltd
Cummins J (2001) Negotiating Identities; Education for Empowerment in a diverse society Los Angeles, CABE
DfES (2006) Ethnicity and Education evidence on Minority Ethnic pupils 5 - 16 http://publications.teachernet.gov.uk/eOrderingDownload/DFES-0208-2006.pdf
The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Developing Literacy in Second Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth
2008 Vol. 11 issue 1 p107 - 113
Webster M (2011) Creative Activities and Ideas for teaching pupils with English as an additional language Harlow Pearson Education Ltd BIC is Basic Interpersonal Communication. This is chatting about things in common such as the X Factor or sport and organisational language such as instructions etc.
CALP is Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency. This is where the learner uses language for reflection, evaluation, analysis etc. CALP is the high order thinking that we are trying to encourage in the classroom.
YOU NEED BOTH IN EQUAL MEASURE 10 Top Tips
Buy a dictionary
Take time to watch an EAL child at play
Use visual aids and non verbal communication
Remember to put the EAL pupil(s) into mixed ability groups
Always consider GOTOS (Groupings, Outcome, Task, Organisation and Staff) for differentiation
Place the EAL pupil with children who have a good grasp of spoken English ra
Use interactive teaching techniques
Always try and plan for ‘context embedded’ and ‘cognitively demanding’ work
Remember that children need experience of BIC and CALP skills
Remember the country/continent they have come from Successful EAL learners usually have a good grasp in their home language and so learn English at the same time as developing vocabulary in their first language. BUT they also need...
1 to 1 communication
Let them be! ...because our language is so irregular, phonics aren’t making sense. Here again, the research says that 80% of the monosyllabic words are regular enough... we’ve got a much more difficult problem to tackle because of the irregularity in English. This doesn’t mean for a minute we shouldn’t approach it in phonics, probably quite the opposite... I think the phonic work is actually very helpful.
Jim Rose http://gtce.org.uk/tla/rft/expert_view/jim_rose/jim_rose_eal There is still limited research specifically on the effectiveness of synthetic phonics with bilingual children but broadly speaking the consensus is that whilst synthetic phonics teaching and the development of phonological awareness will contribute to bilingual learners' English reading development, this should not supplant EAL language development work...care must be taken to ensure that the teaching of phonics does not displace other activities which support the language and literacy of bilingual children...some specialist teachers are observing that EAL support activities are being curtailed in favour of extensive or additional phonics teaching (NALDIC)
http://naldic.org.uk/eal-teaching-and-learning/faq/EAL-synthetic-phonics "I use a variety of approaches not just phonics with EAL pupils"
Deputy Head Teacher Lancashire Primary school
"Accent and dialect is always an issue with children, but can be more so with EAL pupils"
ITT teacher trainer Phonics teaching and the development of phonological awareness will
contribute to EAL learners’ English language development but this must not be viewed as an
isolated activity. The ability to decode, a skill which many EAL learners develop rapidly, is
often not accompanied by the comprehension skills necessary for achievement within the
There is no conclusive evidence that an approach based on teaching synthetic
phonics as an isolated activity in the early years will enable children to develop word
recognition and comprehension skills or to develop or employ the range of literate practices
needed for learning across the curriculum and throughout life. Such an approach does not
take account of the need for learning to be applied in real contexts and a wide variety of
contexts in order to embed understandings. ’Phonics teaching is a means to an end not an
end in itself’ (Adams, 1990) Systematic phonics instruction can enable second language learners to acquire word
recognition and decoding skills in their second language to a relatively high level, despite the
fact that their knowledge of the second language is still limited. These decoding skills,
however, do not automatically generalize to reading comprehension or other aspects of
second language proficiency. (Cummins, 2001) And yet some more!
Baker C (2007) A parent's and teacher's guide to Bilingualism 3rd edition Clevedon Multilingual Matters
Cameron, Lynne (2003). Writing in English as an additional language at Key Stage 4 and
post-16. London: OfSTED
Cope, B. and Kalantzis M. (eds.) (2000). Multiliteracies: Literacy Learning and the Design of
Social Futures. London, Routledge
Department for Education and Skills (2005) Primary National Strategy EAL Programme Draft
Materials. London, DfES
Department for Education and Skills/Teacher training Agency (2002) Qualifying to Teach:
Professional Standards for Qualified Teacher Status and Requirements for Initial Teacher
Training, London, DfES/TTA
Edwards, V. (2003) Bilingual Education past and present – Occasional paper 16. Watford,
Franson, C. (2002) The EAL teacher: descriptors of good practice, NALDIC, Watford
Gibbons, P( 2002) Scaffolding Language, Scaffolding Learning: Teaching Second Language Learners in the Mainstream Classroom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann
Leung, C. (2004) English as an additional language - Language and Literacy Development.Royston, UKLA
Refugee Council Report (2008) Beyond the school gates supporting refugees and asylum seekers in secondary schools Any Questions? Writing is on the wall! The pen
is mine! Go fish! Question bombing! Talk
Tokens Story Cloak jigsaw Expert
Ladders BLUE SKY THINKING... Immersion Vs Bilingualism? Note the things that the school does to to support EAL learners? http://www.teachersmedia.co.uk/videos/ks1-ks2-english-the-multilingual-school EAL is a whole school issue and not simply a class issue List ideas! PHONICS and EAL http://www.teachersmedia.co.uk/videos/ks1-ks2-english-the-multilingual-classroom