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Hayakawa Section Review
Transcript of Hayakawa Section Review
A Matter of Degree
Background: "We have scales of judgment...a finely graduated scale of values in necessary..."(pg. 126).
-The logical part of the human mind reasons through what the author calls a judgement scale
-This scale ranges form one having a a weak/ little to no opinion on a subject to having a strong opinion
Definition: (Judgement scale)a way to express things in varying degrees (similar to multi-valued orientation)
Real Life Original Example: something is amazing, just okay, or terrible
Connection: Judgement scale has a daily influence on human life.
Multi-Valued Orientation and Democracy
Background: "There are people who object to this shilly shallying and insist upon an outright yes or no."(pg. 127).
-Issues not always "black and white", but multilayered with different meanings and messages
Definition: (Multi-valued orientation) which is the ability to see things in terms of more than one value
Real Life Example: anything "in-between" or in the middle (grey area, not extreme)
Connection: multi-valued orientation gives a range of in-between views to express ideas in human life
insofar- to the degree or extent of
neurotic- suffering form nervous emotion
dichotomized- divided/ opposed
apathetic- showing no feeling or interest
reductio- decrease/ less
absurdum- to the point of absuridty
denounce- to make a formal accusation against
reputable- honorable, respectable
racketeering- being forceful to someone in an illegal way
The Pitfalls of Debate
Background: "There is a strong emotional truth in the two-valued orientation that accounts for its adoption in strong expressions of feeling, especially those that call for sympathy, pity , or help in a struggle" (pg. 128).
-strong expressions of feeling are almost unavoidable in this type of orientation because of "a strong emotional truth" that is present in the argument/ debate for either extreme
-Definition: Two- valued orientation is when someone takes one side/extreme over the other
-Real Life Example: In a debate, people tend to pick one extreme side over the other other to argue
-Connection: Two-valued orientation is an extreme way of expressing ideas in human life
The Open and Closed Mind
Background: "...the listener may either accept or reject (like or dislike) the speaker; he may likewise accept or reject (agree or disagree with) the statement" (page 131).
-When someone has a closed mindset, they judge someone or something based off the first information they receive and keep a rigid, unchanging view of the subject from there, whereas with an open mindset someone is more open to the ideas presented to them and willing to alter, change their opinions
Definition: (Mindset)- a way or ability to think about things (examples: open, closed)
Real Life Original Example: open, closed mindsets
Connection: With open mindsets, societal progress is created
The cake is multi-layered just like...
-the many ideas in our presentation