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MGMT 1053: Chapters 9 & 10

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Melissa Newman

on 14 March 2016

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Transcript of MGMT 1053: Chapters 9 & 10

Motivating the Workforce
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Motivation & Human Resources
Chapters 9 & 10
Managing Human Resources
Nature of
Human Relations
Perspectives of
Strategies of
An inner drive that directs a person's behavior toward goals.
An employee's attitude about his or her job, employer and colleagues.
Classical Theory of Motivation
says money is the sole motivator of employees.
Hawthorne Studies
Revealed that human facators influence workers' behavior.
Theories of Motivation
Maslow's Hierarchy
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Theory Z
Equity Theory
Motivational work factors can be classified into two types:
Hygiene Factors:
Relate to the work setting and not to the content of the work (i.e. adequate wages, safe conditions, job security, etc.)
Motivational Factors:
Relate to the content of the work itself (i.e. achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement).
McGregor's Theory
Theory that contrasts two views of management:
Theory X:
Traditional view where managers assume that workers generally dislike work and must be forced to do their jobs.
Theory Y:
Humanistic view where managers assume that workers like to work and under proper conditions will seek out responsibility.
William Ouchi's theory that stresses employee participation in all aspects of company decision-making.
How much people are willing to contribute to an organization depends on their assessment of the fairness, or EQUITY, of the rewards they will receive in exchange.
Expectancy Theory
Says that motivation depends not only on how much a person WANTS something but also on that person's perception of how likely he or she is to get it.
Most basic essentials for living (water, food, shelter, clothing)
Need for love, companionship and friendship (acceptance)
Protecting yourself from physical and economic harm (reporting dangerous working conditions)
Relate to respect
(self-respect and respect from others)
Being the best you can be (maximizing your potential)
Behavior Modification
Changing behavior and encouraging appropriate actions by relating the consequences (rewards and punishment) to the behavior itself.
Job Design
Job Rotation
Allows employees to move from one job to another in an effort to relieve boredom of job specialization.
Flexible Scheduling
Non-traditional workweek schedule that may include compressed workweeks, flextime, job sharing, part-time work and telecommuting.
Job Enlargement
Adds more tasks to a job instead of treating each task as separate.
Job Enrichment
Incorporates motivation factors such as opportunity for achievement, recognition and advancement into a job. Provides more control and authority.
Recruiting & Selecting
Managing Unionized Employees
HRM refers to all the activities involved in determining an organization's human resources needs (and filling those needs).
Human Resources
Determines, through observation and study, pertinent information about the job (required skills and abilities). Used to develop job descriptions and job specifications.
Job Analysis
Formal, written explanation of a specific job (includes title, tasks, required skills, duties and working conditions).
Job Description
Describes the qualifications necessary for a specific job (education, experience, personal characteristics, etc.).
Job Specification
The Application
The Interview
Reference Checking
Legal Issues
Training & Development
An employee organization formed to deal with employers for achieving better pay, hours and working conditions.
Labor Unions
Negotiation process through which management and unions reach an agreement about compensation, working hours and conditions for the bargaining unit.
Collective Bargaining
When collective bargaining breaks down, either side (labor and management) fight to achieve their respective objectives.
Resolving Disputes
Labor Tactics
Management Tactics
Forming a pool of qualified candidates from internal or external sources.
Determine applicant pool and eliminate those obviously not qualified.
Provide in-depth information about the company and learn more about the most qualified candidates.
Behavioral Interviewing
Employers ask about behaviors exhibited in the past since history is the best predictor of future performance.
Determine applicant suitability for the job. Includes things such as IQ test, credit check, MBTI, physical, Wonderlic, drug test, etc.)
Verifying educational background and work experience.

This often now includes a "social media" check.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 bans employment discrimination against protected classes (race, religion, color, sex, national origin or disability).
Americans with Disabilities Act prevents discrimination against disabled persons.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act outlaws discrimination against people over the age of 40.
Equal Pay Act mandates equal pay for equal work.
Familiarize new hires with company, procedures, building, co-workers, etc.
Training: Teaching employees how to do their specific job tasks.

Development: Training that augments skills and knowledge of managers and professionals.
Identifying and providing feedback regarding employee strengths and weaknesses.
Occurs when employees quit or are fired. Can occur through promotion, transfer or separation (resign, retire, layoff, fire)
Pay based on output or hours worked.
Pay based on a fixed amount or % of sales.
Pay calculated weekly, monthly or annually.
Pay provided as reward in addition to regular compensation.
% of company profits to employees.
Nonfinancial compensation (insurance, vacation, sick leave pay, etc.)
Employee walkouts, which are most effective but weapon of last resort.
Attempt to keep people from purchasing a company's products.
Public protest against management practices.
Hiring "scabs", which are replacements of striking workers.
Management's version of a strike where the work site is closed so employees cannot go to work.
Bringing in a neutral outside party to help resolve the dispute.
Bringing in a neutral third party (arbitrator) to decide how to settle. Solution is legally binding.
Using a neutral third party (mediator) to SUGGEST a solution. Unlike an artibrator, mediator has no formal power.
Using a neutral third party (conciliator) to keep bargaining discussions going.
Refers to the participation of different ages, genders, races, ethnicities, abilities, etc. in the workplace.
U.S. work force is becoming more diverse.
Better serve diverse customer base.
Benefits include more productive use of resources, increased motivation & working relationships among employees.
Affirmative Action
Legally mandated plans that try to increase job opportunities for underrepresented minority groups.
Historical Perspectives
Frederick Taylor stressed the need for managers to link pay to performance.
Things which motivate. These are similar to Maslow's esteem and
self-actualization factors.
These don't necessarily motivate, but they may prevent dissatisfaction.
Herzberg identified the job itself as a motivational factor. Here are ways managers can design jobs to improve motivation:
Theory of Human Motivation
This theory is sometimes called "Taylorism"
Positive Reinforcement: "Carrot" approach
Negative Reinforcement: "Stick" approach
Engaging in behavior to earn a reward or avoid a punishment.
Engaging in behavior because it is personally rewarding.
Come up with TWO factors you will use motivate employees at your business. For each one, tell me if it is extrensic/intrinsic (and why). Also explain if it is a hygiene or motivational factor (and explain why).
Reminder: Herzberg's Theory
Applying Chapter 9 to the Big Idea Project
Extrensic: Factors that serve as a reward or way to avoid punishment. An extrensic reward is the benefit or recognition you receive from someone else.
Intrinsic: Factors that cause personal enjoyment. An intrinsic reward is the personal satisfaction and enjoyment you feel from attaining a goal.
Hygiene Factors: Things that prevent dissatisfaction.
Motivational Factors: Things that motivate.
What are some intrinsic motivators for you?
What are some extrensic motivators for you?
I strive to ensure that my workplace is safe for employees and is an environment where they won't get hurt. This is a:
A. Hygiene factor
B. Motivational factor
I tend to believe that my employees work hard because they enjoy work and like being productive. I would best be described as which type of manager?
A. Theory X
B. Theory Y
Reminder: Rewards
Job Design
Identify ONE position at your company and write:
a brief job description &
a job specification
For the job specification you wrote earlier, submit ONE behavioral interviewing question you would ask of a prospective candidate.
Do this one solo -- no consulting with your group!
Which tests (if any) will you administer when hiring someone in this position?
What type(s) of training and development will this position will need. How will you assess this person's performance?
SAR Question
Training & Development
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