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INDIVIDUAL & INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR
Transcript of INDIVIDUAL & INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR
- Job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings, thoughts, emotion and intentions with which workers view their work. Job satisfaction is an affective attitude – a feeling of relative like or dislike toward the overall job-related factors regarding the working conditions.
Effects of Employee Satisfaction
Workers’ Attitude and Their Effects
Studying Job Satisfaction
Issues on Job Satisfaction survey
-Job satisfaction survey procedures are more complicated than they appear to be at first glance because it seems simple to get workers’ responses and then interpret them.
INDIVIDUAL & INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR
Employee Attitudes and Job Satisfaction
Nature of Employee Attitude & Job Satisfaction
Level of Job Satisfaction
- across groups is not constant, but it is related to a number of variables. Relationship allows managers to predict which groups are likely to exhibit the problem behaviors associated with dissatisfaction. The key variables revolve around age, occupational level and organizational size.
-Attitudes are manifestations and good predictors of human behavior. Positive job attitudes can help, to a great extent, predict constructive behavior. Negative job attitudes help predict undesirable behavior. Dissatisfied workers may resort to tardiness, absences, extended break hours and work slow-downs.
- The performance level of a worker is measured by the quality of output considering time and cost. The satisfaction performance relationship is more complex than the simple path of “satisfaction leads to performance.”
- It is assumed that high job satisfaction means lower worker turnover. The more satisfied workers are, the less likely they leave the organization. They feel important, self-fulfilled and receive the appropriate recognition on the job.
Absences and Tardiness
- Several studies reveal that a worker who has low job satisfaction tend to be absent more often. Workers often resort to a variety of reasons such as medical reasons, us of vacation time, sick leave and holidays to offset their absences.
- is the act of stealing; the wrong taking and carrying away of property of another. Some workers resort to steal company’s supplies as an indirect compensation for the relatively low wages they received.
- Extreme consequences of worker dissatisfaction may, to certain extent, exhibit various forms of verbal or physical aggression at work.
1. Top Management actively supports the survey.
3. A clear objective exists for conducting the survey.
5. Management is capable of taking and willing to take follow-up action.
2. Workers are fully involved
in planning the survey.
4. The study is designed and administered in a manner consistent with standards for sound research.
6. Both the results and action plans
are communicated to workers.
Survey Design and Follow-up
1. Identify reasons for the survey.
2. Obtain management commitment.
3. Develop survey instruments.
4. Administer the survey.
5. Tabulate results.
6. Analyze results.
7. Provide feedbacks to participants.
8. Implement action plan.
1. Should participation be voluntary or mandated?
2. Should a sample or the total population be used?
3. Should responses be signed or written anonymously?
4. Should norms be used for comparisons?
5. Should the survey be design and conducted by the internal staff or by the staff?
6. Should deadline be stated for the return of the survey, or should no date be set?
7. How should feedback be given to workers?
Issues Between Organizations and Individuals;
Areas of Legitimate Organizational Influence
– A business organization uses its power to regulate employee activities off the job. When the activity is not job-related, there is little justification for the employer to become involved. However, some activities off the job may affect the employer, so questions on organizational influence or the interference arise.
Rights of Privacy
- The organizational invasion of a person’s private life and unauthorized release of confidential information about a person is referred to as rights of privacy.
Business activities that may involve employees’ right of privacy are:
1. Lie detector
2. Personality tests
3. Encounter groups
4. Medical examination
5. Treatment of alcoholism
6.Treatment of drug abuse
7. Surveillance devices
8. Computer data banks
9. Confidential records
Policy Guidelines on Privacy
1. Relevance – Only necessary and useful date should be recorded and retained.
2. Notice – There should be no personal data system that is unknown to an employee.
3. Fiduciary duty – The custodian of information is responsible for its security.
4. Confidentiality – Information should be given only to those who are entitled and to those only with the employee’s permission.
5. Protection of the psyche – The employee’s inner self should not be invaded or exposed except with the prior consent and for justifiable and compelling reasons.
Conflict in Organizations
- Organizational behavior provides a useful set of tools at many levels of conceptual analysis to help managers look at behavior of individuals within the work environment.
Goals of Organizational Behavior
Conflict in Organization
-these conflicts will be constructive or destructive, only time will tell and these depend, to a great extend, on the attitudes, beliefs, values and skills of the workers. Interpersonal behavior in a complex organization inevitably produces some kind and degree of conflict.
The Nature of Conflicts in Organization
- Conflict is any situation in which two or more parties feel themselves in disagreement. Conflict is an interpersonal process that arises from oppositions over the goals and objectives of the organization to attain the desired results.
1. Conflicts can be avoided.
2. Conflict is the result of personality problems of personality problems of individuals within the organization.
3. Conflict produces inappropriate reactions by the individuals involved.
4. Conflict creates a polarization – manifestation of contrasting tendencies with the organization.
Levels of Conflict
When others have different perceptions or expectations of a person’s role, that person tends to experience role conflict. Such conflict makes it difficult to meet one set of expectations without rejecting another.
The tendency to protect one’s self-image and social-esteem from damage by other persons is inherent in every individual.
Intergroup Structural Conflict.
This type of conflict normally arises from such causes as different perceptions and viewpoints, competition for resources and group loyalties.
Causes of Conflicts
This change will naturally affect global economy and other social structures of society.
Since every individual has his own interest, tastes and varied purposes in life, personality differences can cause conflict.
Different Set of Values.
Values are ideals that arise from an emotional response for or against a certain thing, if they are the experiences of ultimate ends, goals and adhere to various value systems.
Threats to Status.
When one’s status is threatened, face-saving virtually becomes a potent driving force as the individual struggles to uphold the desired image.
Since their perceptions seem very real to them, they sometimes fail to realize that others may have different perceptions of the same subject and consequently, conflict may arise.
Lack of Trust.
Trust builds confidence and provides opportunities in which to act and enriches the entire fabric of an organization. It may take some time to build trust, but it can be destroyed in an instant.
often result when a group that has low perceived status sets standards for another group.
is the physical or mental withdrawal from a conflict.
This strategy basically places great emphasis on concern for others, usually to one’s detriment, resulting in a lose-win result.
It is simply searching in exchange for middle ground or being willing to give up something in exchange for gaining something.
is employing power tactics to win. This strategy forces the conflict to a conclusion by third-party intervention
is to face the conflict directly and work with it through a mutually satisfactory resolution.
1. Agree on a common goal to solve the problem.
2. Clarify the strengths and weaknesses of both party’s positions.
3. Recognize the other person’s (and you own) possible need for face-saving.
4. Be candid; do not hold back key information.
5. Avoid arguing or using “yes-but” response
6. Strive to understand the other person’s viewpoint.
7. Ask questions to elicit needed information; probe for deeper meanings and support.
8. Give the other party due credit when the conflict is over.
is the process of expressing feelings; assessing for legitimate changes; and giving and receiving objective feedback.
Describe the behavior
Express your feelings.
Offer Problem-solving alternatives .
Power & Organizational Politics
Classification of Power
also called as referent power, charismatic power and personality power. This comes from every individual leader and is the ability to develop followers from the strength of their personalities.
It emanates from the culture of organizational structure by which power is delegated legitimately from higher authorities.
This is the power that arises from an individual’s acquired knowledge and information about a complex situation.
capacity to control and administer items that are valued by another.
Strategies to Gain a Political Power
Alliances Control of Information
1. Treat the other party as a potentially.
2. Specify your objectives.
3. Learn about the other person’s needs, interests and goals.
4. Make an inventory of you own resources to identify something of value that you can offer.
Harry M. Lim Jr
T H E E N D