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Transcript of Behaviorism
Key Elements of Contiguous Conditioning
Key Elements of Classical Conditioning
Key Elements in Operant Conditioning
John B. Watson (1878-1958) - considered the founder of modern behaviorism
Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) - developed the theory of connectionism
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) - worked with classical conditioning
Edwin R. Guthire (1886-1959) - theory of contiguous conditioning
B.F. Skinner (1904-1990) - father of operant conditioning
Key Elements of Connectionism
Learning is based on associations or connections
Trial & Error
Law of Exercise
Law of Use
Learning occurs through repetition of a response to a stimulus
Law of Disuse
Responses that are unsuccessful are forgotten
Law of Readiness
Once a ready to act, it is rewarding to do so and punishing to refrain
It's not all about repetition!
Discrete behaviors that result from muscle contractions
Combinations of movements that produce an outcome
Contiguity leads to learning!
The more close in time a stimulus and response are paired, the more learning occurs
Rewards and Punishments
close pairing of stimulus and response causes learning
response need not be satisfying or rewarding for learning to occur
FIXING BAD HABITS
WRITE DOWN A PERSONAL HABIT YOU WOULD LIKE TO BREAK
HOW COULD YOU ACCOMPLISH THIS USING GUTHRIE'S METHODS:
What would instruction look like using instructional design components that originate in behaviorism?
Idea that a being can be conditioned to respond in a certain way to a certain stimulus
Extinction - occurs when conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented, but not reinforced
Generalization - conditioned response to stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus
Discrimination - responding to the conditioned stimuli, but no others
Responses are dependent upon consequences/reinforcement, not stimuli
Added to a situation following a response and increase the likelihood of that response occurring again
Removed from a situation following a response and increase the likelihood of that response occurring again
Primary reinforcers are necessary for survival
Secondary reinforcers become reinforcing by a connection to a primary reinforcer
Removal of a positive reinforcer or the addition of a negative reinforcer in order to reduce the likelihood
of a given response
Does punishment teach?
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Process for ordering reinforcers in order to predict which ones are most likely to be effective
What behavioral process does this sound like?
So, what does this mean for education?
What is the role of the teacher?
What is the role of the student?
Does Behaviorism only apply to social behavior?
To which does Behaviorism most apply:
With a partner, come up with an everyday example of classical conditioning.
UCS, UCR, CS, CR
It helps to think of it as an analogy!
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Room # 818549
Where does cognition fit?
See Moore, 2011