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Abbreviation, Clipping

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Jolana Škrobánková

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Abbreviation, Clipping

Abbreviation
Clippings
Coinages
Blends
Calque

From Latin word "brevis" which means "short"

This is a process in which the word or phrase is shortened

It consists of letters which are contained in the original word
Abbreviation

Dr.- doctor
Sun.- Sunday
etc- et cetera
Blvd.- boulevard
dept.- department
i.e.- id est
Rd.- road
lib.- library
pop.- population
ctr.- center
Sgt.- Sergeant
Lk.- lake
D.C.- District of Columbia
Written Abbreviations
Kind of abbreviation
It is formed by taking initial components in phrase
Initial components are : 1. letters (NATO), 2. parts of word (Benelux)

Examples:
NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Laser: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Acronym vs. Abbreviation
Clippings
New word is a reduction of original word
The word is reduced into its one part
Meaning is still the same
Clippings do not belong to standart vocabulary

We have:
Back clipping
Fore-clipping
Middle clipping
Complex clipping

Examples of clippings
Back clipping: ad (advertisement)

Fore-clipping: phone (telephone)

Middle clipping: flu (influenza)

Complex clipping: navicert (navigation certificate)
Coinages
Coinages are those word which were created either on purpose or by chance
Some of those words are the names of items that we are using every day
We are using word "Kleenex" for facial tissue
These word are often neologisms- that means, they are new words
aspirin
heroin
Google
nylon
Frisbee
zipper
kerosene
Yahoo
linoleum
Examples of coinages
Blends
Blends are words created in a process called "blending"
It is compounding of two clipped words
These two words are originally two different words
This process is popular in journalism and advertising
The most typical is to combine the initial part of one word with the final part of another word, but sometimes they are combined vice versa
Special example of blends are blends where the fist component is reduced to a single letter (V-day= Victory Day
Examples of blends
Brunch = breakfast + lunch
Positron = positive + electron
Sitcom = situation comedy
Smog = smoke + fog
Vegeburger = vegetarian + hamburger
Autocide = automobile + suicide
Spork = spoon + fork
Calque
It is a word borrowed from another language
Word-for-word translation: literal translation from foreign language
Root-for-root translation
These words are not just loanwords
Loanwords are adopted with not attempt to translate them; for example: Spanish phrase "Piňa colada" is used as it is, not translated as "strained pineapple"
Examples of calque
beer garden - German- Biergarten
commonplace - Latin - locus communis
free verse - French - vers libre
loanword - German - Lehnwort
wisdom tooth - Latin - dens sapientiae
pineapple - Dutch - pijnappel
Borrowing
Process in which one word is borrowed into another language but directly
algebra- Arabic
pizza- Italian
haiku- Japanese
fjord- Norwegian
Sources:
Kosur, H. M. 2012. Word Formation: Coinages, Nonce Words, Borrowing, and Calquing (online). Bright Hub Education (quoted: 1/17/2012). source: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/esl-lesson-plans/60060-formation-types-coinages-nonce-loanwords-and-calques/
Kvetko P., English Lexicology in Theory and Practice. Tnava, 2009
school materials
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