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Software

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Charlie Salisbury

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Software

Software
Purpose of OS
A OS (Operating System) is a software package that manages the computers system. It acts as a sort of frame for application software to communicate with the hardware
Utility Software
Utility software is used to help maintain and protect the computers operating system and any other types of software programs e.g. Norton Security
Linux vs Windows
Command line
A command line is a type of interface that allows the user to fully interact with the computer by typing in specific DOS commands but people don't really value this service as you have to remember the specific commands in order to use it, but when Windows OS's was introduced you don't have to remember anything bar where you saved your work in which folder by just just clicking on a few icon.
GUI
GUI stands for 'Graphical User Interface' which allows people to input/interact with devices and as we no longer have to use text commands which meant we had to remember specific commands in order to do tasks, we now have menus, icons, pointing devices and a pointer to simplify tasks
File management
Firewalls
Firewalls do what they say and act as a wall when connect to a network, so it only allows certain data and programs to access the computer which can sometimes follow a certain rules or you can customized it, a example of a secure network would be the internet itself.
Clean-up management tools
Also known as 'Disk Clean-up' it is a utility that can be used with a Microsoft OS, its purpose is to free up any space on hard drive. It does this but searching for any files that are no longer in use and it targets specific files which are more likely to contain these types of files:
Drive formatting
Drive formatting can be done to a HDD, SSD, USB and many more and the reason for doing it, is so that can be used by the OS its connected to. This process is usually done in three steps, First 'low-level' and that's just preparing it, Next is 'medium-level' which makes the device visible to the OS, finally is 'High-level' which removes and generates the new file system so it can be used by the OS
Defragging
Types of Operating systems
Microsoft introduced their version of an operating system in 1985 due to the growing popularity in graphical user interfaces, from there they took the lead in the PC market overtaking the Mac OS
The Mac OS was first brought in, in 1984 by Apple inc for their original Macintosh. There have only been two series of the OS which are called the major revision 9 and the major revision 10
Linux was released in 1991, Linux is a unique OS as it is free to download and use, and is owned by multiple companies would contribute developers and money to Linux
OS functions
Handles the sharing of the internal memory and hardware with applications/programs
Deals with the Monitors, printers any peripherals to and from hardware devices
Sends messages to either applications or the user regarding the status of the operation or any errors
Can schedule the activities of the CPU and its resources to gain better efficiency and stop deadlocks.
OS Services
An OS provides a service to users and programs for example it allows the users to execute programs for them
The OS is on constant alert for errors and will take action for you to fix them
When multiple programs/apps are running so therefore they could be a potential for multiple process happening and to prevent the processes from effecting each other the OS controls processes itself
There are many more services and functions an OS can provide here are just some:
Data on a computer is usually stored on HDD (Hard disk drive) and when you access your documents or your actual computer HDD you will see they are stored in folders that is the file management system on computers, its how everything is organized in folders in a hierarchic order. This system is one best ways of keeping organized on a PC
Device driver
The device driver is a computer program that's job is to managed any peripheral devices attached to the computer, it acts as a translator between the hardware and the OS in which it will act out commands for the devices program
Virus protection
Depending on what operating system a computer is running it can be very susceptible to Worms, Trojans and the most common, virus. Windows is the most common to be attack and one way they attack is through opening emails and when ever your using the internet. The way the Anti-virus software works is by checking for traces of a virus signature but virus writers use polymorphing to disguise the viruses, but then the virus protection release regular updates to combat the new viruses, so its a constant battle. Unfortunately for OS's like Windows and Linux you have to pay extra for Anti-Virus protection but you do get access to extra features that you wouldn't get with free anti-virus software.
Recycling bin
Temporary internet files
Setup log files
Temporary Windows files
Defragging simply reduces the amount of fragmentation which is when hard drive space isn't being used efficiently. The way it fixes this is by organizing the files into the smallest possible fragments, also it to make more space it by compacting the files which also reduces the chance of fragmentation, also it organizes programs together and place the most commonly used programs at the beginning of the HDD.
Price
Reliability
Support for user
Stability
Management tools
Linux
There are multiply version of Linux that do cost money but are cheaper than Windows but the Ubuntu version which mostly every uses is free
Windows
Depending on weather your getting the latest version of windows they can cost up to £100 if you getting a pro pack type with extra features
Summary
With Linux it looks like a better option to pay for a particular version of Linux as you get more security and stability for only a factions of the price of Windows but with windows the features you get in the pro packs would only benefit a few people but even with the standard edition you know your buying a overall good OS for its price and the same goes for Linux. The price tells you everything

Linux
Linux has become a very reliable OS, for example it can run for months without needing a reboot, also Linux has a strong security due to the open source community finding security issues before anyone has a chance to attack anyone, also their firewall is at a standard where its as good as the expensive commercial firewalls. It also can process very quickly without crashing and also prevent programs from crashing as well.
Windows
They have improved vastly with their reliability thought-out their recent versions, but are still having issues with their crashing programs, and their security is at a minimal standard with their firewalls only filtering inbound packets and the rules are only simplistic so we have to spend on other security software which for us takes time and money.
Summary
Linux wins by far when it comes to reliability and you don't even really have to pay at all, unlike Windows where you have to pay for your Anti-Virus protection and firewalls which is an expensive ordeal
Windows
Windows have help sections, and the typical online documents, books, help and as its a very popular OS there are lots of tutorials
Linux
Linux can definitely be difficult to understand especially when there are so many versions of them but there are online help documents, books and tutorials
Summary
As windows is a more popular OS its going to have more available types of help e.g. tutorial videos, its just with Linux there's going to be less types of help and its going to be more difficult to find it with the many versions of Linux
Linux
The reason Linux is now used in most of the worlds supercomputers and for types of servers, its because they rarely need a reboot, its possible they could run for years, the only reason they would need to reboot is because of an update or just to make sure there functioning properly
Windows
Windows OS's have always been susceptible to the 'Blue screen of death' and random crashes but it seems they are reducing the amount of stability problems since Windows 7 was released but with these problems they can never be stable
Linux
With Linux you have the task of having to download your tools which has its pros/cons, but many cons, as you risks of downloading virus, but you get to download just what you need.
Windows
For Windows the management tools are called the 'Administrative tools' and there are a wide range of tools you can work with e.g. firewalls and security and system configuration and many more advanced settings, which gives you everything you need and lets you customizes your tools.
Summary
Its easy to decide that Linux is a far more stable OS than Windows, Linux has no major or even small issues that would cause people to question Linuxes stability but with Windows you always need to be wary
Summary
I would say Linux management tools are far more complex , as with windows you get given everything you will need with easy access but with Linux you have to search for what you want and with the amount down loadable tools out there it could take a while
Summary
Summary
I would say overall neither wins in being the best OS out the two, because they are used for different jobs, Linux is best for running servers with its capability to be so reliability and stability and Microsoft with its user friendly layout and its compatibility with vasts amounts of software and games
Possible Improvements
Effects of OS/Utility Software in the future
Operating Systems
As time progresses the developer apply updates to fix bugs and glitches or updates to make it more efficient and faster. So it should technically be a more configured OS as time progresses. But if you stay with a OS for a certain amount of time you will miss out on the newer version of OS's, it might save yo money but you could be missing out on, new technology, techniques which make the system faster and more efficient, there is also a chance that there will be an improvement in the ease of operation which could save someone from having do to an array of task to having just click and push a few buttons. Also if you don't upgrade your OS your PC could end up not being compatible with other software, games etc as the software developers want to utilizes the newest OS's features and technology in which in turn will make their software etc faster and efficient.
Utility Software
From my opinion utility software is crucial to keeping your system healthy and maintained well. For example using an anti-virus software does come with its advantages and disadvantages for example a benefit of using anti-virus is that it will remove any virus or unwanted data which will keep your personal information safe and improve the speed and efficiency of your PC, but a problem with using anti-virus software is that you will have to pay for your protection depending on weather your using a free one which will probably mean you will get access to less features. Also it now monitors everything you do for example if your trying to download something you know is safe, the anti-virus will stop you because it will treat as something suspicious and not a reliable source, same for websites and firewalls that only allow certain networks that are allowed to connect with your computer I guess its something we have to put up with in order to get the protection.
Now there's such things as 'Disk Clean-up' and 'Defragging' that have the job of not protecting your PC but keeping it at it's optimal performance. Disk clean-up lets the user to remove any files that are no longer needed but makes sure that its done safely without removing that needs to be kept. Defragging tends to your HDD to organize and edited data into its smallest size and make sure all same program files are together to make it easier for the HDD to access all the files faster. Depending how long you haven't run these utilities you could see a vast improvement of maybe little to none.
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